Ymphocytes and adaptive immune system
A 60-year-old woman is suspected of having non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Which of the following aspects of her condition would help to rule out Hodgkin lymphoma?
Her neoplasm originates in secondary lymphoid structures.
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The lymph nodes involved are located in a large number of locations in the lymphatic system.
The presence of Reed-Sternberg cells has been confirmed.
The woman complains of recent debilitating fatigue.
Which of the following patients is most likely to benefit from transplantation of thymic tissue or major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-compatible bone marrow?
A 12-year-old girl with a history of epilepsy and low IgG levels secondary to phenytoin use
A 7-year-old boy whose blood work indicates decreased IgA and IgG with increased IgM
A 6-year-old boy whose pre-B cells are incapable of translation to normal B cells
A 9-year-old girl who has a diagnosis of IgA deficiency
A nurse practitioner is teaching her colleagues about the role of cytokines in a variety of pathologies. Which of the following teaching points best captures an aspect of the functions and nature of cytokines?
“A particular cytokine can have varied effects on different systems, a fact that limits their therapeutic use.”
“Cytokine production is constant over time, but effects are noted when serum levels cross a particular threshold.”
“Most cytokines are produced by granular leukocytes, and different cells are capable of producing the same cytokine.”
“Cytokine actions are self-limiting in that activation of one precludes activation of other cytokines with similar actions.”
A 29-year-old construction worker got a sliver under his fingernail four days ago. The affected finger is now reddened, painful, swollen, and warm to the touch. Which of the following hematological processes is most likely occurring in response to the infection?
Proliferation of immature neutrophils
High circulatory levels of myeloblasts
Increased segmented neutrophil production
Phagocytosis by myelocytes
A 40-year-old woman who experiences severe seasonal allergies has been referred by her family physician to an allergist for weekly allergy injections. The woman is confused as to why repeated exposure to substances that set off her allergies would ultimately benefit her. Which of the following phenomena best captures the rationale for allergy desensitization therapy?
Repeated exposure to offending allergens binds the basophils and mast cells that mediate the allergic response.
Exposure to allergens in large, regular quantities overwhelms the IgE antibodies that mediate the allergic response.
Repeated exposure stimulates adrenal production of epinephrine, mitigating the allergic response.
Injections of allergens simulate production of IgG, which blocks antigens from combining with IgE.
A 22-year-old female who adheres to a vegan diet has been diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Which of the following components of her diagnostic blood work would be most likely to necessitate further investigation?
Decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
Decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit
Microcytic, hypochromic red cells
Decreased erythropoietin levels
Following a course of measles, a 5-year-old girl developed scattered bruising over numerous body surfaces and was diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). As part of her diagnostic workup, blood work was performed. Which of the following results is most likely to be considered unexpected by the health care team?
Increased thrombopoietin levels
Decreased platelet count
Normal vitamin K levels
Normal leukocyte levels
As part of his diagnostic workup, a 77-year-old man’s nurse practitioner has ordered blood work that includes ferritin levels. The man is very interested in the details of his health care and is unfamiliar with ferritin and its role. He asks his nurse practitioner to explain the significance of it and the rationale for testing it. Which of the following explanations by the nurse practitioner is most accurate?
“Ferritin is the activated and usable form of iron that your red blood cells can use to transport oxygen.”
“Ferritin is a stored form of iron that indirectly shows me whether you would benefit from iron pills.”
“Ferritin is a protein-iron complex that allows your red blood cells to make use of the iron that you consume in your diet.”
“Ferritin is the form of iron that is transported in your blood plasma to the red blood cells that need it.”
A 23-year-old man has received a recent diagnosis of appendicitis following 24 hours of acute abdominal pain. The nurse practitioner providing care for the man is explaining that while it is unpleasant, the inflammation of his appendix is playing a role in his body’s fight against the underlying infectious process. Which of the following teaching points should the nurse practitioner eliminate from his teaching for the patient?
“Inflammation can help to remove the body tissue cells that have been damaged by infection.”
“Inflammation will start your body on the path to growing new, healthy tissue at the site of infection.
“Inflammation helps your body to produce the right antibodies to fight the infection.”
“Inflammation ultimately aids in eliminating the initial cause of the cell injury in your appendix.”
A 2-year-old girl has had repeated ear and upper respiratory tract infections since she was born. A pediatrician has determined a diagnosis of transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy. What is the physiological origin of the child’s recurrent infections?
Antibody production by plasma cells is compromised because of impaired communication between B and T cells.
The child had a congenital absence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and her body is only slowly beginning to produce them independently.
The child was born with immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin (IgM) antibodies, suggesting intrauterine infection.
The child lacks the antigen presenting cells integral to normal B-cell antibody production.
A 66-year-old female patient has presented to the emergency department because of several months of intermittently bloody stools that has recently become worse. The woman has since been diagnosed with a gastrointestinal bleed secondary to overuse of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that she takes for her arthritis. The health care team would realize that which of the following situations is most likely?
The woman has depleted blood volume due to her ongoing blood loss.
She will have iron-deficiency anemia due to depletion of iron stores.
The patient will be at risk for cardiovascular collapse or shock.
She will have delayed reticulocyte release.
A 16-year-old female has been brought to her primary care nurse practitioner by her mother due to the girl’s persistent sore throat and malaise. Which of the following facts revealed in the girl’s history and examination would lead the nurse practitioner to rule out infectious mononucleosis?
The girl has a temperature of 38.1°C (100.6°F) and has enlarged lymph nodes.
Her liver and spleen are both enlarged.
Blood work reveals an increased white blood cell count.
Chest auscultation reveals crackles in her lower lung fields bilaterally.
A 30-year-old man has spent 5 hours on a cross-country flight seated next to a passenger who has been sneezing and coughing, and the man has been inhaling viral particles periodically. Which of the following situations would most likely result in the stimulation of the man’s T lymphocytes and adaptive immune system?
Presentation of a foreign antigen by a familiar immunoglobulin
Recognition of a foreign MHC molecule
Recognition of a foreign peptide bound to a self MHC molecule
Cytokine stimulation of a T lymphocyte with macrophage or dendritic cell mediation
A nurse practitioner is explaining to a 40-year-old male patient the damage that Mycobacterium tuberculosis could do to lung tissue. Which of the following phenomena would underlie the nurse practitioner’s explanation?
Tissue destruction results from neutrophil deactivation.
Nonspecific macrophage activity leads to pulmonary tissue destruction and resulting hemoptysis.
Macrophages are unable to digest the bacteria, resulting in immune granulomas.
Neutrophils are ineffective against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens.
A 14-year-old boy has been diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis. Which of the following pathophysiological phenomena is most responsible for his symptoms?
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is lysing many of the boy’s neutrophils.
Viruses are killing some of his B cells and becoming incorporated into the genomes of others.
The EBV inhibits the maturation of white cells within his peripheral lymph nodes.
The virus responsible for mononucleosis inhibits the maturation of myeloblasts into promyelocytes.
A couple who are expecting their first child have been advised by friends to consider harvesting umbilical cord blood in order to have a future source of stem cells. The couple have approached their nurse practitioner with this request and are seeking clarification of exactly why stem cells are valuable and what they might expect to gain from harvesting them. How can the nurse practitioner best respond to the couple’s inquiry?
“Stem cells can help correct autoimmune diseases and some congenital defects.”
“Stem cells can be used to regenerate damaged organs should the need ever arise.”
“Stem cells can be used as a source of reserve cells for the entire blood production system.”
“Stem cells can help treat some cancers and anemias, but they must come from your child himself or herself.”
A 71-year-old male patient with a history of myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular disease has been advised by his nurse practitioner to begin taking 81 mg aspirin once daily. Which of the following statements best captures an aspect of the underlying rationale for the nurse practitioner’s suggestion?
Platelet aggregation can be precluded through inhibition of prostaglandin production by aspirin.
Aspirin helps to inhibit adenosine disphosphate (ADP) action and minimizes platelet plug formation.
Aspirin can reduce unwanted platelet adhesion by inhibiting thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthesis.
Aspirin inhibits the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin and consequent platelet plug formation.
A 60-year-old male patient with an acute viral infection is receiving interferon therapy. The nurse practitioner is teaching the family of the patient about the diverse actions of the treatment and the ways that it differs from other anti-infective therapies. Which of the following teaching points should the nurse practitioner exclude?
“Interferon can help your father’s unaffected cells adjacent to his infected cells produce antiviral proteins that limit the spread of the infection.”
“Interferon can help limit the replication of the virus that’s affecting your father.”
“Interferon helps your father’s body recognize infected cells more effectively.”
“Interferon can bolster your father’s immune system by stimulating natural killer cells that attack viruses.”
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