What it is and how to treat


Research Critique Guidelines – Part II


Pain is an unpleasant sensation and emotional experience that links to tissue damage (Felma,2020). It allows the body to react and prevent further tissue damage. The pain from the same illness and disease can be experienced differently by each individual. Pain is whatever a person says it is and exists wherever the person says it does. The experience of pain is different for every person, and there are various ways to feel and describe the pain (Felma,2020). People feel pain when specific nerves called nociceptors detect tissue damage and transmit information about the spinal cord’s damage to the brain. Cancer causes cells to divide uncontrollably, resulting in tumors, damage to the immune system, and other impairment that can be fatal. Cancer is a broad term. It describes the disease that results when cellular changes cause the uncontrolled growth and division of cells, while some types of cancer cause rapid cell growth, while others cause cells to grow and divide at a slower rate (Nall,2020). Have you ever experienced pain that is so hurtful that you cannot think of a word to describe it? Cancer patients faced lots of pain, most of them have severe pain, and some of them do not have pain at all. Pain management in these patients is of utmost importance. It is crucial to ensure that cancer pain management is based on the best evidence. Nursing evidence-based pain management is examined through an evaluation of pain documentation. Good discussion, but focus on what your practice problem is.


Patients with cancer experience pain from advanced disease and cancer treatment, about one-third of cancer patients on cancer treatment and 60%–90% of cancer patients diagnosed with metastatic cancer report moderate to severe pain (Song et al., 2015). The impaired daily functioning due to cancer pain often leads to a loss of productivity and low quality of life. Implementing evidence-based pain management (EBPM) improves pain management outcomes, lessens the patient length of stay, decreases resource utilization, and improves patient satisfaction (Song et al., 2015). Evidence-based guidelines for cancer pain management are available from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) (National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 2014), the American Pain Society (American Pain Society, 2005), and the National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care (National Consensus Project for Quality Palliative Care, 2009). Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines, nurses’ implementation of EBPM remains problematic or inconsistent (Song et al., 2015). I cannot tell that you covered the background for either article. The background asks for very specific information. You need to describe the research problem, the significance to nursing, the purpose of the research, the objective and the research question and this needs to be for both articles.

How do these two articles support the nurse practice issue you chose?

The two hose to support today’s healthcare problems because it addresses how EBP has improved pain management in cancer patients. Patients with cancer pain who have been managed with opioids over a prolonged period may develop a tolerance to these drugs, which means that standard pain management plans may not effectively improve pain associated with radiotherapy procedures. Cancer pain presents nurses with many challenges because of its complex nature and the limited effects of standard pain relief. The ability to determine the state of nursing EBPM for cancer pain is limited due to the absence of established evaluation tools specifically designed for cancer pain management documentation. The ability to determine the state of nursing EBPM for cancer pain is limited due to the absence of established evaluation tools specifically designed for cancer pain management documentation (Song et al., 2015). The article discusses how pain management in cancer patients can manage their pain by providing good services and assessments, which will help nurses or healthcare providers work their patient’s pain. The article also gives details on how to timely and adequately administer analgesics, which will help the pain not become overly uncontrolled. Good discussion

Method of Study

The method used to conduct the research is the quantitative method. The Survey targeted groups of cancer patients such as supportive, palliative, end-of-life, and hospice was included and searched from between 2010-2015. The surveys were categorized broadly into MEDLINE-indexed and CINAHL-indexed. The reporting rates between MEDLINE-indexed and CINAHL-indexed surveys were also compared for the number of numeric articles ‘mainly’ on cancer pain. Quantitative studies were then mainly based upon study designs. The procedure of data synthesis is explained in the analytical flowchart. Descriptive analysis using frequencies for number of studies with respective percentiles was used for reporting characteristics and was done using 95% confidence interval (Kumar,2016). You need to describe the method used for both studies. Quantitative is not descriptive enough. How was the data collected? What data was collected? Who participated and how many participated. You need to describe this information for both articles. You also need to describe the benefits and challenges of the method selected

Results of Study

The two analytical, systematic reviews on assessments were on cancer pain classification and orofacial pain due to cancer therapy. The four systematic reviews on treatments were on transdermal fentanyl, intraspinal techniques, massage therapy, and cognitive effects of opioids. This study is essentially the first of its kind to review palliative care journals surveys utilizing a systematic approach to quantitatively identify reporting characteristics of articles on cancer pain (Kumar,2016). The survey gives higher reporting rates among multidisciplinary palliative care journals since a ‘multidisciplinary’ focus for cancer pain had long been established in clinical palliative care practice. Cancer-specific journals reported a more significant number of articles on cancer pain than other general palliative care journals. Another area relatively less addressed is “refractory pain’ or “breakthrough pain”. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of the somewhat lesser reporting of cancer pain in the palliative care journal literature. They should shoulder the responsibility to foster a better number of reporting high-quality research on cancer pain. In the future, such reviews could be performed with quality appraisal and identify the quality of writing in cancer pain articles. Systematic reviews were not to be used for any of the assignments. A systematic review is a summary over many studies and not just a single study. Based on this information, I cannot tell anything about the results for the studies.

Outcomes Comparison

The articles answered the PICOT question, making it extremely easy for readers to navigate through the meaning and the direction of the item. Both reports talk about the problem cancer patients faced and how health care providers need to pay more attention to these patients and manage their pain. Furthermore, the article analyzed how often these patient’s pain requirements are undermanaged. One of the pieces talks lightly about how most of these patients are given more medications than being attended to when they change their code status to palliative care. Both articles state the importance of pain assessment is a critical step in identifying a patient’s pain and measuring pain severity. Pain reassessment evaluates the adequacy of pain management interventions and recognizes undertreated pain. Our study found that pain reassessment if documented accurately, was not adequately performed.


Cancer is a deadly disease and has taken many people from their loved ones. It is essential for healthcare providers to have more compassion and empathy for their patients because they are someone else’s father, son, brother, mother, sister, daughter, niece, nephew, grandmother, grandfather, etc. Most of these patients have severe pain, and some of them have been dealing with the disease for a long time, they build a high pain tolerance. It could even be that they dot like to disturb people because of their personality, so they just lay down and don’t ask for help when admitted to the hospital. Therefore, as healthcare providers, we need to be theses for them and make their journey comfortable. This topic is close to my heart; I lost someone very dear to me on 01/05/2021 from gastric cancer; he was in the hospital alone due to COVID 19 restrictions; he was not allowed any visitors. He dealt with a lot alone from his family and loved ones. Many other families went through or are going through the same thing. Our responsibility is to provide the best quality care to our patients, even if their families are not around. Managing their pain, helping them with their ADLs, keeping them and their environment clean is part of our daily task. It is essential for health care providers to continue to have more empathy for their patients. We should check on these patients even if they do not call, check to see if they need anything that could make a massive difference in their lives. I had a patient going for surgery; she was admitted three days before for surgery date, and I had her for three nights. On the morning of her surgery, I told her good luck with her surgery, she burst out crying, she said, ” I thought nobody like me!” and I asked her why you would say something like that, and she said, ” My son has not talked to me in two years, so why do I expect anyone to care about me” It broke my heart, but she appreciated me wishing her good luck. It just shows we need to be present for our patients to meet their needs.


Kumar, S. (2016, January). Reporting characteristics of cancer pain: A systematic review and quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals. PubMed Central (PMC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3098545/

Nall, R. (2020). Cancer: Overview, causes, treatments, and types. Medical and health information. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323648#what-is-cancer

Song, W., Eaton, L., Gordon, D., Hoyle, C., & Doorenbos, A. (2015). Evaluation of evidence-based nursing pain management practice. PubMed Central (PMC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4531385/


Felman, A. (2020). Pain: What it is and how to treat it. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/145750

Not sure why you have to reference headings, only need one

You did a lot of work with this assignment, however there were several things that you did not follow according to the rubric. The introduction you provided was extensive. You need to focus specifically on the practice problem. Pain is such a huge topic, you need to be sure to focus specifically on cancer pain. The background section you provided did not cover any element from the rubric. You need to describe each element to earn full points. The method section did not cover the method used for either article and this is because you used systematic reviews which was not acceptable. This caused the results to be invalid because you were not addressing a single study but multiple studies.

Format, please be sure that when you start a new paragraph that you only indent ½ inch. Most of the paragraphs are indented much more than that.