THE NORTON ANTHOLOGY

THE NORTON ANTHOLOGY OF

AMERICAN LITERATURE

NINTH EDITION

VOLUME A : B EG INN INGS TO 1820

V O L U M E A American Lit er a ture, Beginnings to 1820 • GUSTAFSON

V O L U M E B American Lit er a ture 1820–1865 • LEVINE

V O L U M E C American Lit er a ture 1865–1914 • ELLIOTT

V O L U M E D American Lit er a ture 1914–1945

LOEFFELHOLZ

V O L U M E E American Lit er a ture since 1945

HUNGERFORD

Michael A. Elliott PROFESSOR OF EN GLISH AND AMERICAN STUDIES

EMORY UNIVERSITY

Sandra M. Gustafson PROFESSOR OF EN GLISH AND AMERICAN STUDIES

UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME

Amy Hungerford PROFESSOR OF EN GLISH AND AMERICAN STUDIES

AND DIRECTOR OF THE DIVISION OF THE HUMANITIES

YALE UNIVERSITY

Mary Loeffelholz PROFESSOR OF EN GLISH

NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY

THE NORTON ANTHOLOGY OF

AMERICAN LITERATURE

NINTH ED IT ION

Robert S. Levine, General Editor professor of en glish and

distinguished university professor and distinguished scholar- teacher

University of Mary land, College Park

VOLUME A : B EG INN INGS TO 1820

B W • W • N O R T O N & C O M P A N Y

N E W Y O R K • L O N D O N

vi i

Contents

preface xvii acknowl edgments xxix

Beginnings to 1820

introduction 3 timeline 26

native american oral lit er a ture 29

stories of the beginning of the world 31 The Iroquois Creation Story 31 The Navajo Creation Story 35

Hajíínéí (The Emergence) 36 trickster tales 43

From The Winnebago Trickster Cycle (edited by Paul Radin) 43 oratory 47

From The World Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake 47 Powhatan’s Discourse of Peace and War 52 King Philip’s Speech 53

poetry 54 Cherokee War Song 55 Lenape War Song 57 Two Cherokee Songs of Friendship 57

Christopher Columbus (1451–1506) 58 Letter of Discovery (February 15, 1493) 59 From Letter to Ferdinand and Isabella Regarding the Fourth Voyage

(July 7, 1503) 64

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Bartolomé de las Casas (1474–1566) 66 From An Account, Much Abbreviated, of the Destruction

of the Indies 68

Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (c. 1490–1558) 71 The Relation of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca 73

[Dedication] 73 [The Malhado Way of Life] 74 [Our Life among the Avavares and Arbadaos] 75 [Pushing On] 76 [Customs of That Region] 77 [The First Confrontation] 78 [The Falling- Out with Our Countrymen] 78

first encounters: early eu ro pean accounts of native amer i ca 80

hernán cortés: From Second Letter to the Spanish Crown 82 thomas harriot: From A Brief and True Report of the New Found

Land of Virginia 87 samuel de champlain: From The Voyages of the Sieur de

Champlain 93 robert juet: From The Third Voyage of Master Henry Hudson 98 john heckewelder: From History, Manners, and Customs of

the Indian Nations 103 william bradford and edward winslow:

From Mourt’s Relation 106

John Smith (1580–1631) 110 The General History of Virginia, New Eng land, and the

Summer Isles 113 The Third Book. From Chapter 2. What Happened till the

First Supply 113 The Fourth Book. [Smith’s Farewell to Virginia] 122

From A Description of New Eng land 122 From New Eng land’s Trials 126

William Bradford (1590–1657) 129 Of Plymouth Plantation 132

Book I 132 From Chapter I. [The En glish Reformation] 132 Chapter IV. Showing the Reasons and Causes of Their

Removal 134 From Chapter VII. Of Their Departure from Leyden 137

C O N T E N T S | i x

Chapter IX. Of Their Voyage, and How They Passed the Sea; and of Their Safe Arrival at Cape Cod 141

Chapter X. Showing How They Sought Out a Place of Habitation; and What Befell Them Thereabout 144

Book II 149 Chapter XI. The Remainder of Anno 1620 149

[Dif”cult Beginnings] 150 [Dealings with the Natives] 151

Chapter XII. Anno 1621 [The First Thanksgiving] 154 Chapter XIX. Anno 1628 [Mr. Morton of Merrymount] 154 Chapter XXIII. Anno 1632 [Prosperity Weakens Community] 158 Chapter XXV. Anno 1634 [Trou bles to the West] 159 Chapter XXVII. Anno 1636 [War Threats] 161 Chapter XXVIII. Anno 1637 [War with the Pequots] 162 Chapter XXXII. Anno 1642 [A Horrible Truth] 165 Chapter XXXIV. Anno 1644 [Proposed Removal to Nauset] 166

Thomas Morton (c. 1579–1647) 167 New En glish Canaan 169

The Third Book [The Incident at Merry Mount] 169 Chapter XIV. Of the Revels of New Canaan 169 Chapter XV. Of a Great Monster Supposed to Be

at Ma-re Mount 172 Chapter XVI. How the Nine Worthies Put Mine Host of Ma-re

Mount into the Enchanted Castle at Plymouth 175

John Winthrop (1588–1649) 176 A Model of Christian Charity 178 From The Journal of John Winthrop 189

The Bay Psalm Book 198 Psalm 2 [“Why rage the Heathen furiously?”] 199 Psalm 19 [“The heavens do declare”] 200 Psalm 23 [“The Lord to me a shepherd is”] 201 Psalm 100 [“Make ye a joyful sounding noise”] 202

Roger Williams (c. 1603–1683) 203 A Key into the Language of Ame rica 205

To My Dear and Well- Beloved Friends and Countrymen, in Old and New Eng land 205

Directions for the Use of Language 208 An Help to the Native Language 209

From Chapter I. Of Salutation 209 From Chapter II. Of Eating and Entertainment 209 From Chapter VI. Of the Family and Business of the House 210 From Chapter XI. Of Travel 210

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From Chapter XVIII. Of the Sea 210 From XXI. Of Religion, the Soul, etc. 211

Poem [“Two sorts of men shall naked stand”] 214 From Chapter XXX. Of Their Paintings 214

From Christenings Make Not Christians 215

Anne Bradstreet (c. 1612–1672) 217 The Prologue 219 In Honor of that High and Mighty Princess Queen Elizabeth of

Happy Memory 220 To the Memory of My Dear and Ever Honored Father Thomas

Dudley Esq. 224 To Her Father with Some Verses 226 Contemplations 226 The Flesh and the Spirit 233 The Author to Her Book 236 Before the Birth of One of Her Children 236 To My Dear and Loving Husband 237 A Letter to Her Husband, Absent upon Public Employment 238 Another [Letter to Her Husband, Absent upon Public Employment] 238 In Reference to Her Children, 23 June 1659 239 In Memory of My Dear Grand child Elizabeth Bradstreet 241 In Memory of My Dear Grand child Anne Bradstreet 242 On My Dear Grand child Simon Bradstreet 242 For Deliverance from a Fever 243 Here Follows Some Verses upon the Burning of Our House 243 As Weary Pilgrim 245 To My Dear Children 246

Michael Wigglesworth (1631–1705) 249 From The Day of Doom 250

Mary Rowlandson (c. 1637–1711) 267 A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of

Mrs. Mary Rowlandson 269

Edward Taylor (c. 1642–1729) 301 Preparatory Meditations 302

Prologue 302 Meditation 8 (First Series) 303

God’s Determinations 304 The Preface 304

Upon Wedlock, and Death of Children 306 Upon a Wasp Chilled with Cold 307 Huswifery 308

Samuel Sewall (1652–1730) 309 From The Diary of Samuel Sewall 310 The Selling of Joseph: A Memorial 317

C O N T E N T S | x i

Cotton Mather (1663–1728) 321 The Won ders of the Invisible World 322

[A People of God in the Dev il’s Territories] 322 [The Trial of Martha Carrier] 325

Magnalia Christi Americana 328 Galeacius Secundus: The Life of William Bradford, Esq., Governor of

Plymouth Colony 328 Nehemias Americanus: The Life of John Winthrop, Esq., Governor of

the Mas sa chu setts Colony 334 A Notable Exploit: Dux Fœmina Facti 349

Bonifacius 351 From Essays to Do Good 351

Jonathan Edwards (1703–1758) 356 Personal Narrative 358 On Sarah Pierpont 368 Sarah Edwards’s Narrative 369 A Divine and Supernatural Light 377 Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God 390

american lit er a ture and the va ri e ties of religious expression 403

the jesuit relations 405 JÉRÔME LALEMANT: From How Father Isaac Jogues Was Taken by the

Iroquois, and What He Suffered on His First Entrance into Their Country 406

P. F. X. DE CHARLEVOIX: From Catherine Tegahkouita: An Iroquois Virgin 410

SOR JUANA INÉS DE LA CRUZ: 415 Love Opened a Mortal Wound 415 Suspend, Singer Swan 416

FRANCIS DANIEL PASTORIUS: [In These Seven Languages] 416 ELIZABETH ASHBRIDGE: From Some Account of the Early Part of the

Life of Elizabeth Ashbridge 417 JOHN WOOLMAN: From The Journal of John Woolman 423 JOHN MARRANT: From A Narrative of the Lord’s Wonderful Dealings

with John Marrant, a Black 428 REBECCA SAMUEL: Letters to Her Parents 433 SAGOYEWATHA: Reply to the Missionary Jacob Cram 436

Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) 439 The Way to Wealth 442 The Speech of Miss Polly Baker 449 Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One 451

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Information to Those Who Would Remove to Amer i ca 456 Remarks Concerning the Savages of North Amer i ca 462 The Autobiography 466

Samson Occom (1723–1792) 585 From An Account of the Mohawk Indians, on Long Island 588 A Short Narrative of My Life 589 From A Sermon at the Execution of Moses Paul, an Indian 595 Hymns 606

The Sufferings of Christ, or Throughout the Saviour’s Life We Trace 606

A Morning Hymn, or Now the Shades of Night Are Gone 607 A Son’s Farewell, or I Hear the Gospel’s Joyful Sound 608

ethnographic and naturalist writings 609

sarah kemble knight: From The Private Journal of a Journey from Boston to New York in the Year 1704 610

william byrd: From The Secret Diary of William Byrd of Westover 1710–1712 616 From The History of the Dividing Line 618

alexander hamilton: From Hamilton’s Itinerarium 622 william bartram: Anecdotes of an American Crow 625 hendrick aupaumut: From History of the Muh- he- con- nuk Indians 629

J. Hector St. John de CrÈvecoeur (1735–1813) 634 Letters from an American Farmer 636

From Letter III. What Is an American? 636 From Letter IX. Description of Charles- Town; Thoughts on Slavery;

on Physical Evil; A Melancholy Scene 645 From Letter X. On Snakes; and on the Humming Bird 650 From Letter XII. Distresses of a Frontier Man 651

Annis Boudinot Stockton (1736–1801) 657 A Hymn Written in the Year 1753 659 An Elegiak Ode on the 28th Day of February [1782]. The Anniversary

of Mr. [Stockton’s] Death 660 On a Little Boy Going to Play on a Place from Whence He Had

Just Fallen 662 Addressed to General Washington, in the Year 1777, after the Battles

of Trenton and Prince ton 662 [L]ines on Hearing of the Death of Doctor Franklin 664

John Adams (1735–1826) and Abigail Adams (1744–1818) 664 The Letters 666

Abigail Adams to John Adams (Aug. 19, 1774) [Classical Parallels] 666

C O N T E N T S | x i i i

John Adams to Abigail Adams (Sept. 16, 1774) [Prayers at the Congress] 667

John Adams to Abigail Adams (July 23, 1775) [Dr. Franklin] 668

John Adams to Abigail Adams (Oc