V O L U M E A American Lit er a ture, Beginnings to 1820 • GUSTAFSON

V O L U M E B American Lit er a ture 1820–1865 • LEVINE

V O L U M E C American Lit er a ture 1865–1914 • ELLIOTT

V O L U M E D American Lit er a ture 1914–1945


V O L U M E E American Lit er a ture since 1945














Robert S. Levine, General Editor professor of en glish and

distinguished university professor and distinguished scholar- teacher

University of Mary land, College Park


B W • W • N O R T O N & C O M P A N Y

N E W Y O R K • L O N D O N

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preface xvii acknowl edgments xxix

Beginnings to 1820

introduction 3 timeline 26

native american oral lit er a ture 29

stories of the beginning of the world 31 The Iroquois Creation Story 31 The Navajo Creation Story 35

Hajíínéí (The Emergence) 36 trickster tales 43

From The Winnebago Trickster Cycle (edited by Paul Radin) 43 oratory 47

From The World Encompassed by Sir Francis Drake 47 Powhatan’s Discourse of Peace and War 52 King Philip’s Speech 53

poetry 54 Cherokee War Song 55 Lenape War Song 57 Two Cherokee Songs of Friendship 57

Christopher Columbus (1451–1506) 58 Letter of Discovery (February 15, 1493) 59 From Letter to Ferdinand and Isabella Regarding the Fourth Voyage

(July 7, 1503) 64

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Bartolomé de las Casas (1474–1566) 66 From An Account, Much Abbreviated, of the Destruction

of the Indies 68

Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (c. 1490–1558) 71 The Relation of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca 73

[Dedication] 73 [The Malhado Way of Life] 74 [Our Life among the Avavares and Arbadaos] 75 [Pushing On] 76 [Customs of That Region] 77 [The First Confrontation] 78 [The Falling- Out with Our Countrymen] 78

first encounters: early eu ro pean accounts of native amer i ca 80

hernán cortés: From Second Letter to the Spanish Crown 82 thomas harriot: From A Brief and True Report of the New Found

Land of Virginia 87 samuel de champlain: From The Voyages of the Sieur de

Champlain 93 robert juet: From The Third Voyage of Master Henry Hudson 98 john heckewelder: From History, Manners, and Customs of

the Indian Nations 103 william bradford and edward winslow:

From Mourt’s Relation 106

John Smith (1580–1631) 110 The General History of Virginia, New Eng land, and the

Summer Isles 113 The Third Book. From Chapter 2. What Happened till the

First Supply 113 The Fourth Book. [Smith’s Farewell to Virginia] 122

From A Description of New Eng land 122 From New Eng land’s Trials 126

William Bradford (1590–1657) 129 Of Plymouth Plantation 132

Book I 132 From Chapter I. [The En glish Reformation] 132 Chapter IV. Showing the Reasons and Causes of Their

Removal 134 From Chapter VII. Of Their Departure from Leyden 137

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Chapter IX. Of Their Voyage, and How They Passed the Sea; and of Their Safe Arrival at Cape Cod 141

Chapter X. Showing How They Sought Out a Place of Habitation; and What Befell Them Thereabout 144

Book II 149 Chapter XI. The Remainder of Anno 1620 149

[Dif”cult Beginnings] 150 [Dealings with the Natives] 151

Chapter XII. Anno 1621 [The First Thanksgiving] 154 Chapter XIX. Anno 1628 [Mr. Morton of Merrymount] 154 Chapter XXIII. Anno 1632 [Prosperity Weakens Community] 158 Chapter XXV. Anno 1634 [Trou bles to the West] 159 Chapter XXVII. Anno 1636 [War Threats] 161 Chapter XXVIII. Anno 1637 [War with the Pequots] 162 Chapter XXXII. Anno 1642 [A Horrible Truth] 165 Chapter XXXIV. Anno 1644 [Proposed Removal to Nauset] 166

Thomas Morton (c. 1579–1647) 167 New En glish Canaan 169

The Third Book [The Incident at Merry Mount] 169 Chapter XIV. Of the Revels of New Canaan 169 Chapter XV. Of a Great Monster Supposed to Be

at Ma-re Mount 172 Chapter XVI. How the Nine Worthies Put Mine Host of Ma-re

Mount into the Enchanted Castle at Plymouth 175

John Winthrop (1588–1649) 176 A Model of Christian Charity 178 From The Journal of John Winthrop 189

The Bay Psalm Book 198 Psalm 2 [“Why rage the Heathen furiously?”] 199 Psalm 19 [“The heavens do declare”] 200 Psalm 23 [“The Lord to me a shepherd is”] 201 Psalm 100 [“Make ye a joyful sounding noise”] 202

Roger Williams (c. 1603–1683) 203 A Key into the Language of Ame rica 205

To My Dear and Well- Beloved Friends and Countrymen, in Old and New Eng land 205

Directions for the Use of Language 208 An Help to the Native Language 209

From Chapter I. Of Salutation 209 From Chapter II. Of Eating and Entertainment 209 From Chapter VI. Of the Family and Business of the House 210 From Chapter XI. Of Travel 210

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From Chapter XVIII. Of the Sea 210 From XXI. Of Religion, the Soul, etc. 211

Poem [“Two sorts of men shall naked stand”] 214 From Chapter XXX. Of Their Paintings 214

From Christenings Make Not Christians 215

Anne Bradstreet (c. 1612–1672) 217 The Prologue 219 In Honor of that High and Mighty Princess Queen Elizabeth of

Happy Memory 220 To the Memory of My Dear and Ever Honored Father Thomas

Dudley Esq. 224 To Her Father with Some Verses 226 Contemplations 226 The Flesh and the Spirit 233 The Author to Her Book 236 Before the Birth of One of Her Children 236 To My Dear and Loving Husband 237 A Letter to Her Husband, Absent upon Public Employment 238 Another [Letter to Her Husband, Absent upon Public Employment] 238 In Reference to Her Children, 23 June 1659 239 In Memory of My Dear Grand child Elizabeth Bradstreet 241 In Memory of My Dear Grand child Anne Bradstreet 242 On My Dear Grand child Simon Bradstreet 242 For Deliverance from a Fever 243 Here Follows Some Verses upon the Burning of Our House 243 As Weary Pilgrim 245 To My Dear Children 246

Michael Wigglesworth (1631–1705) 249 From The Day of Doom 250

Mary Rowlandson (c. 1637–1711) 267 A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of

Mrs. Mary Rowlandson 269

Edward Taylor (c. 1642–1729) 301 Preparatory Meditations 302

Prologue 302 Meditation 8 (First Series) 303

God’s Determinations 304 The Preface 304

Upon Wedlock, and Death of Children 306 Upon a Wasp Chilled with Cold 307 Huswifery 308

Samuel Sewall (1652–1730) 309 From The Diary of Samuel Sewall 310 The Selling of Joseph: A Memorial 317

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Cotton Mather (1663–1728) 321 The Won ders of the Invisible World 322

[A People of God in the Dev il’s Territories] 322 [The Trial of Martha Carrier] 325

Magnalia Christi Americana 328 Galeacius Secundus: The Life of William Bradford, Esq., Governor of

Plymouth Colony 328 Nehemias Americanus: The Life of John Winthrop, Esq., Governor of

the Mas sa chu setts Colony 334 A Notable Exploit: Dux Fœmina Facti 349

Bonifacius 351 From Essays to Do Good 351

Jonathan Edwards (1703–1758) 356 Personal Narrative 358 On Sarah Pierpont 368 Sarah Edwards’s Narrative 369 A Divine and Supernatural Light 377 Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God 390

american lit er a ture and the va ri e ties of religious expression 403

the jesuit relations 405 JÉRÔME LALEMANT: From How Father Isaac Jogues Was Taken by the

Iroquois, and What He Suffered on His First Entrance into Their Country 406

P. F. X. DE CHARLEVOIX: From Catherine Tegahkouita: An Iroquois Virgin 410

SOR JUANA INÉS DE LA CRUZ: 415 Love Opened a Mortal Wound 415 Suspend, Singer Swan 416

FRANCIS DANIEL PASTORIUS: [In These Seven Languages] 416 ELIZABETH ASHBRIDGE: From Some Account of the Early Part of the

Life of Elizabeth Ashbridge 417 JOHN WOOLMAN: From The Journal of John Woolman 423 JOHN MARRANT: From A Narrative of the Lord’s Wonderful Dealings

with John Marrant, a Black 428 REBECCA SAMUEL: Letters to Her Parents 433 SAGOYEWATHA: Reply to the Missionary Jacob Cram 436

Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) 439 The Way to Wealth 442 The Speech of Miss Polly Baker 449 Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One 451

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Information to Those Who Would Remove to Amer i ca 456 Remarks Concerning the Savages of North Amer i ca 462 The Autobiography 466

Samson Occom (1723–1792) 585 From An Account of the Mohawk Indians, on Long Island 588 A Short Narrative of My Life 589 From A Sermon at the Execution of Moses Paul, an Indian 595 Hymns 606

The Sufferings of Christ, or Throughout the Saviour’s Life We Trace 606

A Morning Hymn, or Now the Shades of Night Are Gone 607 A Son’s Farewell, or I Hear the Gospel’s Joyful Sound 608

ethnographic and naturalist writings 609

sarah kemble knight: From The Private Journal of a Journey from Boston to New York in the Year 1704 610

william byrd: From The Secret Diary of William Byrd of Westover 1710–1712 616 From The History of the Dividing Line 618

alexander hamilton: From Hamilton’s Itinerarium 622 william bartram: Anecdotes of an American Crow 625 hendrick aupaumut: From History of the Muh- he- con- nuk Indians 629

J. Hector St. John de CrÈvecoeur (1735–1813) 634 Letters from an American Farmer 636

From Letter III. What Is an American? 636 From Letter IX. Description of Charles- Town; Thoughts on Slavery;

on Physical Evil; A Melancholy Scene 645 From Letter X. On Snakes; and on the Humming Bird 650 From Letter XII. Distresses of a Frontier Man 651

Annis Boudinot Stockton (1736–1801) 657 A Hymn Written in the Year 1753 659 An Elegiak Ode on the 28th Day of February [1782]. The Anniversary

of Mr. [Stockton’s] Death 660 On a Little Boy Going to Play on a Place from Whence He Had

Just Fallen 662 Addressed to General Washington, in the Year 1777, after the Battles

of Trenton and Prince ton 662 [L]ines on Hearing of the Death of Doctor Franklin 664

John Adams (1735–1826) and Abigail Adams (1744–1818) 664 The Letters 666

Abigail Adams to John Adams (Aug. 19, 1774) [Classical Parallels] 666

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John Adams to Abigail Adams (Sept. 16, 1774) [Prayers at the Congress] 667

John Adams to Abigail Adams (July 23, 1775) [Dr. Franklin] 668

John Adams to Abigail Adams (Oct. 29, 1775) [Prejudice in Favor of New Eng land] 669

Abigail Adams to John Adams (Nov. 27, 1775) [The Building Up a Great Empire] 670

Abigal Adams to John Adams (March 31, 1776) [Remember the Ladies] 672

John Adams to Abigail Adams (July 3, 1776) [ These colonies are free and in de pen dent states] 674

John Adams to Abigail Adams (July 3, 1776) [Redections on the Declaration of In de pen dence] 675

Abigail Adams to John Adams (July 14, 1776) [The Declaration. Smallpox. The Grey Horse] 677

John Adams to Abigail Adams (July 20, 1776) [Do My Friends Think I Have Forgotten My Wife and

Children?] 678 Abigail Adams to John Adams (July 21, 1776)

[Smallpox. The Proclamation for In de pen dence Read Aloud] 679

Thomas Paine (1737–1809) 681 Common Sense 682

Introduction 682 From III. Thoughts on the Pres ent State of American Affairs 683

The Crisis, No. 1 689 The Age of Reason 695

Chapter I. The Author’s Profession of Faith 695 Chapter II. Of Missions and Revelations 697 Chapter XI. Of the Theology of the Christians,

and the True Theology 698

Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) 702 The Autobiography of Thomas Jefferson 704

From The Declaration of In de pen dence 704 Notes on the State of Virginia 711

From Query V. Cascades [Natu ral Bridge] 711 From Query XIV. Laws [Slavery] 712 Query XVII. [Religion] 717 Query XIX. [Manufactures] 720

The Federalist 721 No. 1 [Alexander Hamilton] 723 No. 10 [James Madison] 726

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Olaudah Equiano (1745?–1797) 731 The In ter est ing Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano,

or Gustavas Vassa, the African, Written by Himself 733 From Chapter 1 733 Chapter II 735 From Chapter III 745 From Chapter IV 747 From Chapter V 751 From Chapter VI 755 From Chapter VII 763 From Chapter IX 767

Judith Sargent Murray (1751–1820) 770 On the Equality of the Sexes 772

Philip Freneau (1752–1832) 780 The Wild Honey Suckle 781 The Indian Burying Ground 782 To Sir Toby 783 On Mr. Paine’s Rights of Man 785 On the Religion of Nature 786

Phillis Wheatley (c. 1753–1784) 787 On Being Brought from Africa to Amer i ca 789 To the Right Honourable William, Earl of Dartmouth 789 To the University of Cambridge, in New Eng land 790 On the Death of the Rev. Mr. George White”eld, 1770 791 Thoughts on the Works of Providence 792 To S. M., a Young African Painter, on Seeing His Works 795 To His Excellency General Washington 796 Letters 798

To John Thornton (Apr. 21, 1772) 798 To Rev. Samson Occom (Feb. 11, 1774) 798

Royall Tyler (1757–1826) 799 The Contrast 801

Hannah Webster Foster (1758–1840) 841 The Coquette; or, The History of Eliza Wharton 843

Charles Brockden Brown (1771–1810) 941 Memoirs of Carwin the Biloquist 943

native american eloquence: negotiation and re sis tance 985

canassatego: Speech at Lancaster 986 pontiac: Speech at Detroit 989 logan: From Chief Logan’s Speech 991

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cherokee women: To Governor Benjamin Franklin 993 tecumseh: Speech to the Osages 994

Washington Irving (1783–1859) 996 A History of New- York from the Beginning of the World

to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, by Dietrich Knickerbocker 998 Book II, Chapter I [Hudson Discovers New York] 998

Rip Van Winkle 1003

selected Bibliographies A1 permissions Acknowledgments A11 index A13

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Preface to the Ninth Edition

The Ninth Edition of The Norton Anthology of American Lit er a ture is the “rst for me as General Editor; for the Eighth Edition, I served as Associate General Editor under longstanding General Editor Nina Baym. On the occasion of a new general editorship, we have undertaken one of the most extensive revisions in our long publishing history. Three new section editors have joined the team: Sandra M. Gustafson, Professor of En glish and Con- current Professor of American Studies at the University of Notre Dame, who succeeds Wayne Franklin and Philip Gura as editor of “American Lit er a ture, Beginnings to 1820”; Michael A. Elliott, Professor of En glish at Emory University, who succeeds Nina Baym, Robert S. Levine, and Jeanne Campbell Reesman as editor of “American Lit er a ture, 1865–1914”; and Amy Hungerford, Professor of En glish and American Studies at Yale Uni- versity, who succeeds Jerome Klinkowitz and Patricia B. Wallace as editor of “American Lit er a ture since 1945.” These editors join Robert S. Levine, editor of “American Lit er a ture, 1820–1865,” and Mary Loeffelholz, editor of “American Lit er a ture, 1914–1945.” Each editor, new or continuing, is a well- known expert in the relevant “eld or period and has ultimate responsi- bility for his or her section of the anthology, but we have worked closely from “rst to last to rethink all aspects of this new edition. Volume introduc- tions, author headnotes, thematic clusters, annotations, illustrations, and biblio graphies have all been updated and revised. We have also added a number of new authors, se lections, and thematic clusters. We are excited about the outcome of our collaboration and anticipate that, like the previous eight editions, this edition of The Norton Anthology of American Lit er a ture will continue to lead the “eld.

From the anthology’s inception in 1979, the editors have had three main aims: “rst, to pres ent a rich and substantial enough variety of works to enable teachers to build courses according to their own vision of American literary history (thus, teachers are offered more authors and more se lections than they will prob ably use in any one course); second, to make the anthol- ogy self- suf”cient by featuring many works in their entirety along with extensive se lections for individual authors; third, to balance traditional interests with developing critical concerns in a way that allows for the com- plex, rigorous, and capacious study of American literary traditions. As early as 1979, we anthologized work by Anne Bradstreet, Mary Rowlandson, Sarah Kemble Knight, Phillis Wheatley, Margaret Fuller, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Frederick Douglass, Sarah Orne Jewett, Kate Chopin, Mary E. Wilkins Freeman, Booker T. Washington, Charles W. Chesnutt, Edith Wharton,

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W. E. B. Du Bois, and other writers who were not yet part of a standard canon. Yet we never shortchanged writers— such as Franklin, Emerson, Whitman, Hawthorne, Melville, Dickinson, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, and Faulkner— whose work many students expected to read in their American lit er a ture courses, and whom most teachers then and now would not think of doing without.

The so- called canon wars of the 1980s and  1990s usefully initiated a review of our understanding of American lit er a ture, a review that has enlarged the number and diversity of authors now recognized as contributors to the totality of American lit er a ture. The traditional writers look dif fer ent in this expanded context, and they also appear dif fer ent according to which of their works are selected. Teachers and students remain committed to the idea of the literary— that writers strive to produce artifacts that are both intellectually serious and formally skillful— but believe more than ever that writers should be understood in relation to their cultural and historical situations. We address the complex interrelationships between lit er a ture and history in the volume introductions, author headnotes, chronologies, and some of the footnotes. As in previous editions, we have worked with detailed suggestions from many teachers on how best to pres ent the authors and se lections. We have gained insights as well from the students who use the anthology. Thanks to questionnaires, face- to- face and phone discus- sions, letters, and email, we have been able to listen to those for whom this book is intended. For the Ninth Edition, we have drawn on the careful commentary of over 240 reviewers and reworked aspects of the anthology accordingly.

Our new materials continue the work of broadening the canon by repre- senting thirteen new writers in depth, without sacri”cing widely assigned writers, many of whose se lections have been reconsidered, reselected, and expanded. Our aim is always to provide extensive enough se lections to do th