The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one's behavior is part of what early field of psychology?

Sallie noticed that when her alarm clock goes off in the morning, her dog Ruffles is standing by her bed

salivating. Every morning when Sallie wakes to the alarm, she immediately rolls out of bed and feeds Ruffles, who very much enjoys his canned dog food. It is likely that _________.

Question 1 options:

Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to enjoy canned dog food

Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to sleep next to her bed

Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate over canned dog food

Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate to the sound of her alarm clock

Question 2 (4 points)

The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one’s behavior is part of what early field of psychology?

Question 2 options:

structuralism

functionalism

psychoanalysis

behaviorism

Question 3 (4 points)

Who was an early proponent of functionalism?

Question 3 options:

Ivan Pavlov

William James

Wilhelm Wundt

Max Wertheimer

Question 4 (4 points)

A teacher tells the school psychologist that Kate is late to class, does not turn in her homework, squirms around a lot in her seat, and swings her feet constantly. This is an example of which goal of psychology?

Question 4 options:

describing behavior

explaining behavior

predicting behavior

controlling behavior

Question 5 (4 points)

At the close of the nineteenth century, Gerhard is excited to find that he has been accepted for training in the psychology laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt. It is likely that Gerhard will be trained to ________.

Question 5 options:

analyze how to break down his sensations into their most basic elements

determine the function or purpose of a particular human behavior

listen intently while individuals tell him of their depression or nervousness

carefully feel the bumps on a person’s head in order to determine his or her character traits

Question 6 (4 points)

The question “Why is it happening?” refers to which of the following goals in psychology?

Question 6 options:

description

explanation

prediction

control

Question 7 (4 points)

Psychologists who give potential employees tests that determine what kind of job those employees might best perform are interested in the goal of ________.

Question 7 options:

description

explanation

prediction

control

Question 8 (4 points)

If an individual believed that why people think and feel as they do is more important than what they think and how they think, that individual would be a proponent of the ________ approach to psychology.

Question 8 options:

structuralist

functionalist

psychodynamic

behaviorist

Question 9 (4 points)

Darley and Latané (1968) believe that the presence of other people in a distressing situation decreased the likelihood that they would receive help due to ________.

Question 9 options:

diffusion of anonymity

diffusion of responsibility

flaws in laws protecting Good Samaritans

timeliness of onset

Question 10 (4 points)

Samantha just had her purse stolen while walking down Fifth Avenue in New York City, which is a very busy part of Manhattan. She screamed loudly, and several people looked in her direction, but nobody stopped walking or made an attempt to help. She immediately broke down in tears and trembled for 10 minutes until she could walk to her car. This is an example of ________.

Question 10 options:

democracy

the bystander effect

diffusion of effects

flaws in the judicial system

Question 11 (4 points)

Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology?

Question 11 options:

the scientific study of behavior

the scientific study of mental processes

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes

Question 12 (4 points)

A person who has suffered a major stroke and is now experiencing severe personality problems because of the damage would BEST be advised to see a ________.

Question 12 options:

psychiatrist

cognitive psychologist

psychiatric social worker

psychologist

Question 13 (4 points)

Which type of early psychologist believed that “the whole is more than the sum of its parts”?

Question 13 options:

Gestaltist

behaviorist

structuralist

functionalist

Question 14 (4 points)

Humanist Abraham Maslow suggests that when people reach self-actualization, they:

Question 14 options:

develop to their fullest potential.

avoid negative consequences of behavior.

seek maximum reward for all their behaviors.

learn from their mistakes and move on.

Question 15 (4 points)

Cognitive neuroscientists can examine the brain with ________.

Question 15 options:

electrolysis and PET

PET and MRI

MRI and electrolysis

Gamma images and electrolysis

Question 16 (4 points)

Steve is a fan of the Los Angeles Lakers basketball team. With little provocation, he will engage you in a debate about whether it is the greatest team in basketball. Stevemay be demonstrating ________.

Question 16 options:

bias

critical thinking

an eclectic approach

unconscious behavior

Question 17 (4 points)

You attend a lecture by a psychologist who uses terms such as free will and self-actualization. Which psychological perspective is most consistent with the points the psychologist presented?

Question 17 options:

behaviorism

humanism

functionalism

psychodynamics

Question 18 (4 points)

Professor Wenches approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes unconscious processes within the individual, such as inner forces or conflicts. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches?

Question 18 options:

social-cognitive learning

learning

cognitive approach

psychodynamic approach

Question 19 (4 points)

Suppose you were a graduate student studying for a Ph.D. in psychology in the 1920s. Your advisor was strongly influenced by John B. Watson. Which of the following might your advisor consider an acceptable choice for your research?

Question 19 options:

a survey of daydreams

an analysis of how specific behaviors are acquired

a survey of sexual imagery in dreams of men and women

an analysis of the thought processes students report while answering test items

Question 20 (4 points)

Which type of psychologist would be most likely to argue that a criminal engages in unlawful behavior because he grew up around older boys who engaged in criminal activities?

Question 20 options:

Gestaltist

behavioralist

psychodynamic

functionalist

Question 21 (4 points)

Freud stressed the importance of ________.

Question 21 options:

early childhood experiences

adolescence

early adulthood

middle adulthood

Question 22 (4 points)

Professor Beverly approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes bodily events and chemicals, such as hormones, associated with behavior. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches?

Question 22 options:

biopsychological

learning

cognitive

sociocultural

Question 23 (4 points)

The goals of psychology are to ________.

Question 23 options:

explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind

understand, compare, and analyze human behavior

improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death

describe, explain, predict, and control behavior

Question 24 (4 points)

What advice might John B. Watson have offered to psychologists of his time?

Question 24 options:

“Focus on observable behavior.”

“Life is an effort to overcome inferiority.”

“We cannot know others until we know ourselves.”

“Remember that what we accomplish is due to the composition of our genes.”

Question 25 (4 points)

The structuralists were important in the history of psychology because they:

Question 25 options:

examined consciousness and the structure of mental processes.

were the first to use brain-scanning techniques to learn about the structure of the brain.

realized the limits of introspection and focused on the structure of behaviors.

were strongly influenced by Charles Darwin.