pathology and clinical science

Topic: pathology and clinical science

Order Description

LOOKING AT TWO CASE STUDIES AND ANSWERING the given questions in relevance to them. Giving references to back up questions answered. The two topics are Renal Stones and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and peptic Ulcer.
Word count needs to be 750-1000 words for each case study. each case study needs to have 5 quality references ie: reference textbooks, research papers no older than 8years, academic websites. No wikipedia.
Case studies are attached.
harvard referencing with specific page numbers please.

CASE STUDY 1      (25 MARKS)     Word Count: 750 – 1000 words

Michael is a bioscientist who travels frequently to deliver seminars on his latest research. He has
presented to hi GP complaining of stabbing pain in the epigastrium and discomfort in his chest,
which he says has been getting worse over the past three months. This discomfort increases after
meals, especially if he eats fatty or spicy food. These cause a burning sensation in the epigastric
region, bloating and dyspepsia. Because of his frequent travelling, he admits that his eating habits
are pretty irregular.

His symptoms started about 5 months ago with discomfort in the abdomen and recurrent flatulence
and disturbed sleep. This situation progressed gradually, and has exaggerated over the past

Michael always feels hungry and there is an empty feeling in his stomach about 2-3 hours after a
meal. This is usually accompanied by a gnawing pain in the upper stomach area which is relieved
by further eating or a glass of milk. Sometimes he is nauseated, that is unrelieved by belching.
After meals he regularly has the sensation of the food regurgitating back up into the throat

Vital signs:
Test  Result  Normal range
Blood pressure  145/90  (110-130/70-80) mm of Hg
(for this age group)
Pulse rate  92 per minute  60-100 per minute
Respiratory rate  18 breaths / minute  12-16 breaths per minute
Temperature  36.9 ˚C  36.6 – 37.2 ˚C

Test  Result  Normal range
Haemoglobin  105 gms/L  (140-160) gms/L
Hematocrit  28  36 – 49
Mean Cell Volume (MCV)
66 fl  76 – 100
Mean Cell Haemoglobin (MCH)  21 pg  27 – 32 pg
Fasting blood sugar  4.4 mmol/L  3.6 – 5.3 mmol
Platelets   420 (x10
/L)  150-400 (x10

Endoscopy:  revealed three small solitary white patches surrounded by an area of redness in the
pylorus and a solitary lesion in the proximal part of duodenum, measuring between 1 and 2 cms in
diameter, as indicated in the images below.



1)  List all the signs and symptoms from the given case study in terms of their location, onset, progress
and duration.
2)  Outline three possible conditions for Michael.
3)  Briefly explain the haematology test results for Michael.
4)  What would be the expected findings if a physical examination of Michael’s abdomen was
5)  What further investigative tests would you like to order? Explain how these tests can help the
6)  Describe the changes taking place in the mucosal cells in Michael’s pylorus and duodenum to
explain the pathophysiology of his condition.
7)  Select one of your differential diagnoses. What are the conventional treatments used for this
8)  How would you manage this case apart from the treatment?

SaveDate 23 July 2014  Page 4 of 5
CASE STUDY 2      (25 MARKS)          Word Count: 750 – 1000 words
A fifty year old man, who lives in the outback, presents to the ‘mobile’ GP clinic with haematuria,
frequency and burning while urinating. He also complains of bilateral loin pain, radiating down into
his groin. He has lived in the outback for all of his adult life, and his only water supply is bore water
from the underground aquifer.
The GP takes some urine for culture and sensitivity along with a sample for ‘dip-stick’ testing. He
also takes blood for a Full Blood Count, and the results are below.
He also takes an abdominal x-ray on a very old, but still functional, x-ray machine, and the x-ray
image is below.
Full Blood Count:
Test  Result  Normal range
Haemoglobin  115 g/L  (115-160) g/L
White cell count  12,000 (X10
/L)  4000 – 11000 (X10
Packed cell volume   0.37  0.37 – 0.47
Platelets  410 (X10
/L)  150-400 (X10


Image Source:

Endeavour College of Natural Health    Student No.
© Endeavour College of Natural Health   472bb42f0c1e48c4bd623bdb54ec04a7
SaveDate 23 July 2014  Page 5 of 5
a)  When considering his symptoms, list two findings on a urine ‘dip-stick’ that you would expect to
discover in this patient, and what is the rationale for these findings.

b)  From the x-ray above, it is clear that this man has renal calculi. What type of calculi is visible in
this X-ray, and name two types of mineral deposits that can produce such calculi?

c)    Apart from the symptoms that this man has presented with, describe three additional clinical
signs and symptoms of renal calculi.

d)   Explain four (4) causes of renal calculi.

e)   The region that this man comes from in central Australia, is a desert land and has very hard
water. Explain how the geographical location of may have contributed to the development of
his renal stones. What could he do to help prevent a recurrence of calculi in the future.

f)    What is the likely course of treatment for this patient?


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