Medical Terminology

Question Description

HS111: Medical Terminology

INSTRUCTIONS: Please review the Discussion Board grading rubric attached to understand how your posts will be evaluated. Your posts should be qualitative and provide substantive depth that advances the Discussion. Responses to your classmates or instructor should be around 75 words. Outside sources are required and must be cited in APA format.Guided response: Select a minimum of two initial posts from your classmates. Assume the role of the patient and ask further questions about the educational explanation of your medical visit which you would find vital to your good health going forward. Are there any terms that need clarifying? Do you have questions about the medications or follow up care?


Mr. Drake, according to the notes about your history in your medical chart you have lumbar spinal stenosis. This is a narrowing or shrinking of the spinal canal and as a result compresses the nerves that travel through the lower back into the legs. It may occasionally affect younger patients but is more often a degenerative condition that affects people who are typically age 60 and older. Narrowing of the spinal canal usually happens slowly, over many years or decades, and the disks become less spongy. This process comes with aging. Some of the symptoms you may feel with lumbar spinal stenosis are pain, weakness or numbness in the legs, calves, or buttocks. Cramping in the calves with walking, Radiating pain in one or both thighs and legs. In some rare cases, loss of motor functioning of the legs, loss of normal bowel or bladder function can occur as well. This pain may be improved with bending forward, sitting or lying down to alleviate pressure on the spine. To diagnose you with lumbar spinal stenosis you were probably given an X-ray or some form of imaging test. Diagnosis is typically made by a neurosurgeon based on history, symptoms, a physical exam, and test results. To treat this condition anti-inflammatory medications can be used to reduce swelling and pain, physical therapy can be done, and surgical options are available but have requirements.

~Adrienne Abascal~


Hello Mr. Drake. We are here to discuss your diagnosis of shingles encephalitis and your hospital admittance. When you were first seen in the hospital you presented with fever of 103.8 and confusion, you experienced a loss of partial communication and comprehension and you were experiencing numbness, tingling and , prickling feeling in your lower lumbar area and legs. Blood cultures, urinalysis and Chest x-ray all came back negative, so we obtained a consultation for neurology. An MRI was ordered and the MRI revealed viral encephalitis.`You had an abnormal EEG and was admitted for further observation and treatment. You were given an antiviral medication by IV for 10 days, in which you began to slowly improve and began to speak normally. At this point, the medication s were working and you were discharged. Now to discuss the shingles encephalitis, which is a virus. Shingles, (varicella virus), is the same virus that causes chicken pox. The chicken pox virus lies dormant in the nervous system for decades and eventually it can begin to spread and affect the nerves that have been causing pain. Usually stress, the bodies resistance and just generally run down can cause the shingles to be problematic. Now that you are feeling better, do you have any questions for me that you would like to discuss?

~Anne Jackson~

HS200: Diseases of the Human Body

INSTRUCTIONS: Please review the Discussion Board grading rubric attached to understand how your posts will be evaluated. Your posts should be qualitative and provide substantive depth that advances the discussion. You need to make 2 or more responses to your classmates or instructor and your responses should be around 75 words.


There are a number of different appointments and ultrasound visits for an expecting mother during her pregnancy. Screening tests are routinely performed throughout the pregnancy to see if there are any problems with the woman or more importantly, the growing baby, These are more commonly known as ultrasounds. During weeks 11 though 13 of a woman’s first trimester, a combination of tests are done to look for certain birth defects relating to the baby’s heart or chromosomal disorders, the most common being down syndrome. This screening process includes a maternal blood test and an ultrasound of the baby where the technician takes pictures of the baby’s development. Then the second trimester screening tests are performed at weeks 15 and 20 of pregnancy. The first test is the maternal serum screen. Which is a simple blood test to see if the woman is at a risk for having a baby with certain birth defects like down syndrome. Next is the fetal echocardiogram, a test that uses sound waves to evaluate the baby’s heart for heart defects before birth. And the big test done at usually 20 weeks is the anomaly ultrasound. During this test the technician takes pictures of the baby and checks the baby’s size and signs for birth defects. This is usually the ultrasound where the gender of the baby is able to be identified. The other type of screening test is called a diagnostic test. This test is performed if the result of the screening test is abnormal, and the doctor wants to get a more thorough test to confirm or deny the diagnosis. This happened to me during my pregnancy. After one of my routine ultrasounds, the doctor wanted to get a diagnostic test done after there was a sign of fluid in the baby’s brain. This is a sign for birth defects, so the appointment was made for the diagnostic screening, and thankfully everything turned out to be normal. These high resolution ultrasound tests are an example of some tests for diagnostic screening. Another test is an amniocentesis test where the doctor collects a small amount of amniotic fluid from the area surrounding the baby. The fluid is then tested to measure the baby’s protein levels, which might indicate certain birth defects such as down syndrome. This test is completed between 15 and 18 weeks of pregnancy. While there are many tests during a woman’s pregnancy, some can be scary if there are concerns, but overall I think it’s exciting to see the progress and knowing the baby is growing nice and healthy.

~Caitlin Cassidy~


“Diagnosis of Birth Defects.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 5 Dec. 2019,


Good afternoon everyone!

Topic 2: Discuss genetic counseling in reference to neural tube defect or Down syndrome.

Neural tube defects are birth defects that happen during the development of the embryo and are caused by the fact that the neural tube fails to close completely during development. (Greene & Copp, 2014) Genetic testing is strongly encouraged for mothers who already have a child with a neural tube defect such as spina bifida or anencephaly, but any woman can have a baby with a neural tube defect. Expectant mothers can get prenatal testing for NTDs to find out if their baby is at risk for being born with a NTD. Screening tests would include a “Quad Screen” which is a blood test that measures four substances in the blood, AFP, a protein made by the baby, HCG, a hormone made by the placenta, Estriol, a hormone made by the placenta and the baby’s liver and Inhibin A, another protein made by the placenta. An ultrasound can also be done and that can show any defects in the formation of the baby’s body. If those screening tests show there could be a possibility of a NTD then the doctor may recommend an amniocenteses. In this test the physician uses a needle and draws out some of the mother’s amniotic fluid that surrounds the baby in the womb. This fluid is then tested for the presence of birth defects in the baby. They are also able to do a more detailed ultrasound of the baby’s spine and skull. After the tests come back, if there shows a presence of defects the physician will discuss available options for treatment of the defects.

~Cynthia Zars~


Greene, N., & Copp, A. (2014). Neural tube defects. Retrieved May 16, 2020, from

March of Dimes. (n.d.). Neural tube defects. Retrieved May 16, 2020, from