Logic Model Workbook

I N N O V A T I O N N E T W O R K , I N C . www.innonet.org • info@innonet.org

Logic Model Workbook

I N N O V A T I O N N E T W O R K , I N C . www.innonet.org • info@innonet.org

Logic Model Workbook T a b le o f C ont en ts P a g e Introduction – How to Use this Workbook ……………………………………………………………2

Before You Begin …………………………………………………………………………………………………..3

Developing a Logic Model …………………………………………………………………………………….4 Purposes of a Logic Model ………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

The Logic Model’s Role in Evaluation …………………………………………………………………. 6

Logic Model Components – Step by Step …………………………………………………………….. 6

Problem Statement: What problem does your program address? ……………………. 6

Goal: What is the overall purpose of your program? ………………………………………. 7

Rationale and Assumptions: What are some implicit underlying dynamics? ….8

Resources: What do you have to work with? ………………………………………………… 9

Activities: What will you do with your resources? ………………………………………… 11

Outputs: What are the tangible products of your activities? …………………………… 13

Outcomes: What changes do you expect to occur as a result of your work?………. 14

Outcomes Chain …………………………………………………………………………… 16

Outcomes vs. Outputs ………………………………………………………………….. 17

Logic Model Review ……………………………………………………………………………………………..18

Appendix A: Logic Model Template

Appendix B: Worksheet: Developing an Outcomes Chain

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I n t ro d uc t io n – H ow to U s e t h is Work book Welcome to Innovation Network’s Logic Model Workbook. A logic model is a commonly-used tool to clarify and depict a program within an organization. You may have heard it described as a logical framework, theory of change, or program matrix—but the purpose is usually the same: to graphically depict your program, initiative, project or even the sum total of all of your organization’s work. It also serves as a foundation for program planning and evaluation. This workbook is a do-it-yourself guide to the concepts and use of the logic model. It describes the steps necessary for you to create logic models for your own programs. This process may take anywhere from an hour to several hours or even days, depending on the complexity of the program. We hope you will use this workbook in the way that works best for you:

• As a stand-alone guide to help create a logic model for a program in an organization, • As an additional resource for users of the Point K Learning Center, and/or • As a supplement to a logic model training conducted by Innovation Network.

You can create your logic model online using the Logic Model Builder in Innovation Network’s Point K Learning Center, our suite of online planning and evaluation tools and resources at www.innonet.org. This online tool walks you through the logic model development process; allows you to save your work and come back to it later; share work with colleagues to review and critique; and print your logic model in an attractive, one-page presentation view for sharing with stakeholders. Free registration is required. For those of you who prefer to work on paper or who don’t have reliable Internet access, a logic model template is located in Appendix A of this workbook. You may want to make several copies of this template, to allow for adjustments and updates to your logic model over time.

This checklist icon appears at points in the workbook at which you should record something – either write something in your template, or enter it into your online Logic Model Builder.

Why evaluate?

Evaluation serves many purposes:

• Supports program and strategic planning

• Helps communicate your goals and progress

• Serves as a basis for ongoing learning to make your work stronger and more effective.

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Ongoing Learning Cycle Evaluation is an ongoing learning cycle; a process that starts with planning, leads into data collection, analysis and reflection, and then to action and improvement. Logic models are the foundation of planning and the core of any evaluation process. As you make strategic decisions based on evaluation findings, you move right back into the planning stage.

B e fore Yo u Be g in In preparing to create a logic model, you may want to consider: What stakeholders should I involve? The development of a logic model offers an opportunity to engage your program’s stakeholders in a discussion about the program. Stakeholders might include program staff, clients/service recipients, partners, funders, board members, community representatives, and volunteers. Their perspectives can enrich your program logic model by clarifying expectations for the program. What is the scope of this logic model?

• Identify a timeframe for the logic model you are about to create. It will help you frame short-, intermediate, and long-term outcomes and make better decisions about resources and activities. Many groups design logic models for a funding or program cycle, a fiscal year, or a timeframe in which they believe they can achieve some meaningful results.

• This logic model structure is intended for program planning. Define the parameters of

your program clearly. If your organization is small and only has one program, you can also use this structure for small-scale strategic planning.

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D e v e l o p i n g a L o g i c M o d e l Many different logic model formats exist, but they all contain the same core concepts. The format we use in this workbook and in our online tools has proven useful and manageable for the nonprofit partners we have worked with, and is the result of more than fifteen years of program planning and evaluation experience in the field. It’s not necessary to create your logic model all in one sitting. It will almost certainly be useful to talk to other program stakeholders and get their input along the way. You can work through the process as we have it laid out here – starting with the problem your program is meant to solve, and ending with your intended outcomes – or, if it’s easier for you, you can work in reverse, starting with outcomes and working your way backwards. Similarly, the names of key components may also vary among different logic models used in the field, but the underlying concepts are the same. In this workbook, we identify other terms used in the field for similar concepts. As you develop your logic model, we encourage you to find a common language to use among key stakeholders, whether that language reflects the terms used here or elsewhere. The important thing is that everyone involved uses the same terms.

The components of the logic model used by Innovation Network are:

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A series of “if-then” relationships connect the components of the logic model: if resources are available to the program, then program activities can be implemented; if program activities are implemented successfully, then certain outputs and outcomes can be expected.

As you draft each component of the logic model, consider the if-then relationship between the components. If you cannot make a connection between each component of the logic model, you should identify the gaps and adjust your work. This may mean revising some of your activities to ensure that you are able to achieve your outcomes, or revising intended outcomes to be feasible with available resources. P u rpo s e s o f a Log ic Mo de l The logic model is a versatile tool that can support many management activities, such as:

• Program Planning. The logic model is a valuable tool for program planning and development. The logic model structure helps you think through your program strategy—to help clarify where you are and where you want to be.

• Program Management. Because it “connects the dots” between resources, activities, and outcomes, a logic model can be the basis for developing a more detailed management plan. Using data collection and an evaluation plan, the logic model helps you track and monitor operations to better manage results. It can serve as the foundation for creating budgets and work plans.

• Communication. A well-built logic model is a powerful communications tool. It can show stakeholders at a glance what a program is doing (activities) and what it is achieving (outcomes), emphasizing the link between the two.

• Consensus-Building. Developing a logic model builds common understanding and promotes buy-in among both internal and external stakeholders about what a program is, how it works, and what it is trying to achieve.

• Fundraising. A sound logic model demonstrates to funders that you have purposefully identified what your program will do, what it hopes to achieve, and what resources you will need to accomplish your work. It can also help structure and streamline grant writing.

The logic model you create with this workbook can be used for any or all of the above purposes – any time you need to show or refer to a clear and succinct picture of your program.


Resources Activities Outputs Outcomes ThenThenThen

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T h e Log ic Mo de l ’ s Ro l e in Eva l uat io n The cornerstone of effective evaluation is a thorough understanding of the program you are trying to evaluate: What resources it has to work with, what it is doing, what it hopes to achieve, for whom, and when. In conducting an evaluation, it is tempting to focus most of your attention on data collection. However, your evaluation efforts will be more effective if you start with a logic model. Going through the logic model process will help ensure that your evaluation will yield relevant, useful information. The figure below illustrates how the logic model you will build can serve as the foundation for future evaluation plans. (Our Evaluation Plan Workbook and online Evaluation Plan Builder offer guidance for creating evaluation plans.)

Logic Model

Evaluation Plan: Process

OutputsActivities Outcomes


Evaluation Plan: Outcomes

Outcomes Indicators


Data Collection

Data Collection

C om po ne nt s – S t ep by S te p

A note about our “Home Buying” example: People often ask for examples that relate directly to their program area—but examples for one programmatic area can be difficult to “translate” to another programmatic area. We use the example of becoming a homeowner to give a more general conceptual framework. Problem Statement The first step in creating a logic model is to clearly articulate the problem your work is tring to solve— that is, frame a particular challenge for the population you serve. problem that frames a particular challenge for the population your work will try to solve.

Other Terms for “Problem Statement”

You might also hear a problem statement called an “issue statement” or “situation.”

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Your problem statement should briefly explain what needs to change: why is there is a need for an intervention? Your problem statement answers the question, “What problem are we working to solve?” Include “who, what, why, where, when, and how” in your statement. Sample problem statements:

I do not own my own home, so I do not experience the many financial and emotional benefits of home ownership.

A growing number of women in Highland Falls lack the confidence and know-how to obtain employment and be self-sufficient due to low literacy in our region.

In Townsville, low-income residents with bad or no credit do not have resources available to help them improve their current living situations.

Build Your Logic Model: When you have identified your problem statement, insert it into the Problem Statement box in your logic model template, or on the “Problem/Goals” tab of the online Logic Model Builder.


Next, think about the overall purpose of what you are trying to measure (your program, intervention, etc). What are you trying to accomplish? The answer to this question is the solution to your problem statement, and will serve as your goal.

Goals serve as a frame for all elements of the logic model that follow. They reflect organizational priorities and help you steer a clear direction for future action.

Goals should: • Include the intended results—in general terms—of the program or initiative. • Specify the target population you intend to serve.

Examples of goal statements include:

To increase my financial independence and security through home ownership.

Significantly increase the literacy rates among children with reading difficulties at Yisser Elementary School by implementing a teen-tutored reading program.

Assist clients in their effort to become economically self-sufficient.

Improve the health status of children, ages birth to 8 years, in Harrison County.

Other Terms for “Goal”

You might also hear a goal called an “objective” or a “long-term outcome.”

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Goal Tips: • All logic model components should be connected to your goal. Having a clear goal helps

fight the temptation to implement an interesting program that doesn’t really “fit.” • It’s tempting to have more than one goal, but we recommend that you articulate one clear

solution to your problem statement. Other goals of your program may be long-term outcomes, rather than goals.

• Phrase your goal in terms of the change you want to achieve over the life of your intervention, rather than a summary of the services you are going to provide.

• Don’t make your statement so broad and general that it provides no guidance for your project.

Build Your Logic Model: Insert your goal statement(s) into the Goal box in your logic model template, or on the “Problem/Goals” tab of the online Logic Model Builder. Rationales A program’s rationales are the beliefs about how change occurs in your field and with your specific clients (or audience), based on research, experience, or best practices. For example:

Home ownership increases a person’s options for financial stability and wealth-building.

Current research on women leaving public income support systems indicates that targeted job training, partnered with a menu of support and coaching services, can help women get and keep living wage jobs

Success in moving into higher-paying jobs and achieving economic self-sufficiency is closely related to the availability of opportunities for training and education.

These rationales all demonstrate a core set of beliefs based on knowledge about how changes occur in the field.

Build Your Logic Model: If you choose to include Rationales in your logic model, record them in the “Rationales” box on the template, or on the “Rationale/Assumptions” tab in the online Logic Model Builder.

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Assumptions The assumptions that underlie a program’s theory are conditions that are necessary for success, and you believe are true. Your program needs these conditions in order to succeed, but you believe these conditions already exist – they are not something you need to bring about with your program activities. In fact, they are not within your control. These assumptions can refer to facts or special circumstances in your community, region, and/or field. Examples of program assumptions are:

There are houses for sale for which potential homebuyers will qualify.

There are living wage jobs available within a reasonable distance of this neighborhood, with adequate public transportation to reach those jobs.

Two counselors can serve a client population of approximately 40.

The first assumption demonstrates that there is a circumstance within the community that will enable a homebuyer to successfully purchase a home. The third example shows that the program manager has clearly thought out how many counselors are needed to support the number of participants the program will serve.

Build Your Logic Model: If you choose to include the Assumptions behind your program choices in your logic model, record them in the “Assumptions” box on the template, or on the “Rationale/Assumptions” tab in the online Logic Model Builder. Resources Identify the available resources for your program. This helps you determine the extent to which you will be able to implement the program and achieve your intended goals and outcomes.

List the resources that you currently have to support your program. (If you intend to raise additional resources for the program during this program timeframe, account for them under “Activities.”)

An exception: If you’re building your logic model as part of a proposal or to justify a funding request, list all the resources you will need for a successful program, whether or not you have them in hand. (You may wish to separate resources under headings for “need” and “have.”)

Other Terms for “Resources”

You might also hear resources called “inputs” or “program investments”.

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Common types of resources include:  Human resources: Full- and part-time staff, consultants (e.g., fundraising, technical

support, strategic planning, communications), pro bono staff services, and volunteers  Financial resources: Restricted grants, operating budget, and other monetary resources  Space: Office and other facilities  Technology: Computer hardware & software, communications infrastructure (email,

website)  Other Equipment: Office machinery (printers, copiers) and equipment specific to the

program  Materials/Other: Office supplies, program materials (training materials), insurance, etc.

Resource Tips:

• Identify the major resource categories for your program. • Be specific about these resources, but do not spend a lot of time developing a detailed

list of all actual or anticipated program expenditures.

Not specific enough Just right Too specific

Home-buying resources Clear financial records

W2 forms 1099s Tax returns Bank statements Pay stubs Utilities bills Credit report

Staff 3 full-time staff 1 part-time

1 project lead @ 40 hrs/wk 2 project associates @ 40 hrs/wk 1 part-time support person @ 20 hrs/wk

Supplies Art Supplies

25 paintbrushes 50 bottles of paint 250 sheets of paper 25 coffee cans Dishwashing liquid

• Remember to include resources such as technology, materials, and space: these are often

overlooked at the program planning stage, which can cause trouble later. • You can use your resource list as the foundation for developing a program budget. • Do you receive in-kind contributions? List those among your resources.

Build Your Logic Model: List your resources statement(s) in the Resources box in your logic model template, or on the “Timeframe/Resources” tab of the online Logic Model Builder.

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Activities Activities are the actions that are needed to implement your program—what you will do with program resources in order to achieve program outcomes and, ultimately, your goal(s). Common activities are:

• Developing products (e.g., promotional materials and educational curricula), • Providing services (e.g., education and training, counseling or health screening), • Engaging in policy advocacy (e.g., issuing policy statements, conducting public

testimony), or • Building infrastructure (e.g., strengthening governance and management structures,

relationships, and capacity).

It is often helpful to group related activities together. The number of activity groups depends on your program’s size and how you administer it. For a large program, there might be numerous activity groups; smaller programs may consist of just one or two. Each activity group will have more specific activities under it—but remember, this isn’t a to-do list. Getting too specific can overwhelm your audience.


For our homebuying example, we use the activity groups of preliminary research, financial preparation, homebuyer’s education, identify a neighborhood, secure mortgage loan, choose a house, and make the purchase. A program with the goal of reducing the teen pregnancy rate in its city might have the following activity groups: family planning education, mentoring, and providing individual and group counseling. A program with a goal of increasing organizational capacity through strategic use of technology might have the following activity categories: technology planning, selecting and implementing technology infrastructure, staff assessment and training, and network support.

Other Terms for “Activities”

You might also hear activities called “processes,” “strategies,” “methods,” or “action steps.”

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Activities Tips: • You can use the activities you identify here as an outline for a work plan. Use the

activities as headings in a more comprehensive work plan that includes staff assignments and a timeline.

• Providing a complete list of activities helps people who are not familiar with your understand what it really takes to implement it—but getting too specific can overwhelm them. The chart below gives some examples of what level of specificity is useful.

Activity Group: Identify a neighborhood

ACTIVITIES: • Hire real-estate agent • Drive around the city

This set of activities is not detailed enough. It omits a number of key steps needed to implement mentor training.

Activity Group: Identify a neighborhood

ACTIVITIES: • Conduct Google search • Interview friends and family • Choose three books from the local library

about neighborhoods • Read three books • Hire a driver to tour neighborhoods • Try neighborhood restaurants • Set up review meeting • Take friends and family on neighborhood

tours o Send out Invitations o Arrange transportation

This is too detailed. It would more appropriately belong in a work plan.

Activity Group: Identify a neighborhood

ACTIVITIES: • Research local neighborhoods–amenities

and prices • Hire a real-estate agent • Tour priority neighborhoods

This is just about the right level of detail for a logic model.

Build Your Logic Model: List all activities required to implement your program, and group related activities together. Record them in your template or on the “Activities/Outputs” tab of the online Logic Model Builder.

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Outputs Outputs are the measurable, tangible, and direct products or results of program activities. They lead to desired outcomes—benefits for participants, families, communities, or organizations—but are not themselves the changes you expect the program will produce. They do help you assess how well you are implementing the program. Whenever possible, express outputs in terms of the size and/or scope of services and products delivered or produced by the program. They frequently include quantities or reflect the existence of something new. Examples of program outputs include numbers and descriptions of:

• Number of home buying workshops attended • Number of neighborhoods researched • Number of program participants served • Hours of service provided • Number of partnerships or coalitions formed • Focus groups held • Policy briefings conducted

An output statement doesn’t reveal anything about quality. You will assess the quality of your outputs in your evaluation. Outputs Tips:

• Make sure your outputs have activities and resources associated with them. This is one way a logic model is useful—to check whether a program has planned how it will create a product or deliver a service.

• Many people identify specific numbers for their outputs. Begin with an estimate, based on experience, desired impact, and resources available. Don’t get stuck on exact numbers; you can adjust them later.

Build Your Logic Model: List all the outputs you expect your program’s activities will produce. Place these in the Outputs box of the logic model template or on the “Activities/Outputs” tab of the online Logic Model Builder.

Other Terms for “Outputs”

You might also hear outputs called “deliverables,” “units of service,” or “products.”

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Outcomes Outcomes express the results that your program intends to achieve if implemented as planned. Outcomes are the changes that occur or the difference that is made for individuals, groups, families, organizations, systems, or communities during or after the program. Outcomes answer the questions: “What difference does the program make? What does success look like?” They reflect the core achievements you hope for your program. Outcomes should:

• Represent the results or impacts that occur because of program activities and services • Be within the scope of the program’s control or sphere of reasonable influence, as well as

the timeframe you have chosen for your logic model • Be generally accepted as valid by various stakeholders of the program • Be phrased in terms of change • Be measurable. (It may take work to translate them into measurable indicators.)

Types of Change: Organizations with diverse missions and services share common categories of outcomes, because outcomes are about change: changes in learning, changes in action, or changes in condition. Changes in Learning:

o New knowledge o Increased skills o Changed attitudes, opinions, or values o Changed motivation or aspirations

For example: • Potential homeowners increase their understanding of the home buying process • Teens ages 15-18 increase their commitment to community service.

Changes in Action: o Modified behavior or practice o Changed decisions o Changed policies

For example: • Potential homeowners have purchased their first home. • Teens ages 15-18 participate in community service.

Other Terms for “Outcomes”

You might also hear outcomes called “results”, “impacts”, or “objectives”.

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Changes in Condition: o Human (e.g., from oppression to freedom; from malnourishment to food

security) o Economic (e.g., from unemployed to employed) o Civic (e.g., from disenfranchised to empowered) o Environmental (e.g., from polluted to clean)

For example: • Potential homeowners have purchased their first home. • Teens ages 15-18 have improved employment prospects because of community

service. Focus of Outcomes: Clarify who or what will experience the intended changes. 1. Individual, Client-Focused Outcomes: These reflect the difference the program will make in the lives of those directly served by the program. Examples include:

• Potential homebuyer has purchased a home (change in status/condition) • Parents use alternative discipline approaches (behavior) • Participants are better able to organize and advocate for their rights (skills) • Children are better prepared to enter school (changed status/condition)

2. Family or Community Outcomes: Some programs intend to create change for families, neighborhoods, or whole communities. Examples include:

• Higher percentage of homeowners as opposed to renters in a low-income community • Improved communication among family members • Increased parent-child-school interactions • Decreased neighborhood violence • Community group has an inclusive membership policy, work group practices, and

democratic governance 3. Systemic Outcomes: These illustrate changes to overall systems and might include cases where agencies, departments, or complex organizations work in new ways, behave differently, share resources, and provide services in a coordinated fashion. Examples include:

• Integrated system of services or interagency resource sharing • Greater coordination among partners in a system

4. Organizational Outcomes: Some programs lead to internal outcomes—both individual and institutional—that affect how well a program can achieve external outcomes. These produce improvements in program management and organizational effectiveness. Examples of organizational outcomes include:

• Increased efficiency • Increased staff motivation • Increased collaboration with other organizations

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Chain of Outcomes. Not all outcomes can occur at the same time. Some outcomes must occur before others become possible. This is referred to as the “chain of outcomes.” (See Appendix B for a worksheet.)  Short-term Outcomes: What change do you expect to occur either immediately or in the near

future? Short-term outcomes are those that are the most direct result of a program’s activities and outputs. They are typically not ends in themselves, but are necessary steps toward desired ends (intermediate or long-term outcomes or goals)

 Intermediate Outcomes: What change do you want to occur after that? Intermediae outcomes are those outcomes that link a program’s short-term outcomes to long-term outcomes.

 Long-term Outcome: What change do you hope will occur over time? Long-term outcomes are those that result from the achievement of your short- and intermediate-term outcomes. They are also generally outcomes over which your program has a less direct influence. Often long-term outcomes will occur beyond the timeframe you identified for your logic model.

Outcomes Chain Example Good Health for Kids is an advocacy organization that educates parents and guardians about the importance of immunizing children. The staff has identified the following program activities:

• Develop educational literature • Disseminate literature to social service agencies • Develop public service announcements (PSAs) • Identify and work with radio stations to air radio spots

The outcomes associated with these activities fall into three categories:

Short-Term LEARNING: The knowledge parents and guardians gain from the literature & PSAs. • Increased understanding

among targeted parents of the importance of childhood immunization

• Increased knowledge among targeted parents of where to go to have their children immunized

Intermediate BEHAVIOR: The actions parents & guardians take as a result of that knowledge. • Increased number of

targeted parents who take their children to be immunized

Closer in Time Easier to Measure More Attributable to Program

Long-Term CONDITION: The conditions that change as a result of those actions. • Increased number of

children of targeted parents who continue to receive up to date immunizations

• Fewer children suffering from preventable childhood diseases

• Better overall health for children

More Distant in Time Harder to Measure

Less Attributable to Program

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Outcomes vs. Outputs Since outcomes are sometimes confused with outputs, we’d like to go over the differences again. Here are their distinguishing characteristics:

• Outputs are the direct and measurable products of a program’s activities and services; they are often expressed in terms of volume or units delivered.

• Outcomes are the results or impact of the activities and services. Outcomes often represent the results of multiple outputs; each outcome usually corresponds to more than one output.

Output Outcome

# of workshops attended by potential first time homebuyer

Potential homebuyer puts in a contract for a two bedroom home

# of new mothers receiving six home visits Participating new mothers increase their knowledge of child development

Action Plan developed to clean and monitor neighborhood play areas

Residents in Community X sign up to clear vacant lots and build playgrounds

# of funding proposals submitted # of potential individual donors

Increased and diversified resources for the program

Board job descriptions developed Board policy manual written and approved

Board members understand their responsibilities

# of meetings held with legislators # of legislators receiving policy options paper

Increased legislators’ awareness of policy options

Outcome Scope: Clarify the scope of your outcomes by creating realistic boundaries. Do not identify outcomes beyond your program’s reach. Possible characteristics to use in narrowing an outcome’s scope include: • Geography (people in Harrison County; students attending Hillandale High School) • Age (youth ages 8-12; children in grades K-6) • Income level or financial circumstance (low-income; middle class with bad credit) • Ethnicity or culture (predominantly Latino; recent immigrants) • Other characteristics of the people to be served (part-time worker; victims of sexual assault)

Build Your Logic Model: Identify the changes that will occur as a result of your program. Place these in the Outcomes boxes of the logic model template, or on the Outcomes tab of the online Logic Model Builder.

• Place the outcomes you expect to see during the program term in the “short-term” box • Place the outcomes you want to see over more time in the “intermediate” box • Place the outcomes you hope to see eventually in the “long-term” box.

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L og ic Mo de l R ev ie w Once your logic model is complete, take time to revisit and review your work. Consider the following questions: