Write a 500-700-word essay on ONE of the following (maximum 20 points towards your 2nd exam):
A. Describe the efforts of the nineteenth Ottoman sultans to reform their empire. How successful were their attempts to stem the tides of internally and externally generated decline?
B. Who were the Hashimites? What role did they play during the First World War? What was the position of the Hashimite princes following the War?