hypothetical distributions of wealth

Question 1

1. __________ are people that have broken the rules and are caught, punished, and labeled as outsiders.

a. Pure deviants
b. The falsely accused
c. Secret deviants
d. Conformists

1 points   

Question 2

1. The U.S. Department of State publishes the Human Rights Report on the People’s Republic of China. The report accuses the Chinese government of human rights violations. Constructionist theorists would call this report

a. a claims-making activity.
b. a product of rule-makers.
c. unfounded.
d. a structural strain.

1 points   

Question 3

1. Xavier is applying for a customer service job. He has a charming personality but the interviewer noticed Xavier has missing teeth. Xavier does not get the job because he lacks __________ cultural capital.

a. institutionalized
b. objectified
c. significant
d. embodied

1 points   

Question 4

1. The negatively privileged property classes include all but which one of the following?

a. those dependent on seasonal employment
b. the bourgeoisie
c. completely unskilled persons
d. those at the bottom of the class system

1 points   

Question 5

1. From a functionalist perspective, social inequality

a. ensures that the best-qualified people will fill the most demanding positions.
b. causes people in the entry-level jobs to work harder.
c. guarantees that incompetent people will not seek the most important jobs.
d. increases the motivation level of all workers.

1 points   

Question 6

1. People whose rule breaking is viewed as understandable, incidental, or insignificant are known as

a. the falsely accused.
b. conformists.
c. primary deviants.
d. pure deviants.

1 points   

Question 7

1. The human gaze is a form of

a. secondary deviance.
b. surveillance.
c. censorship.
d. the prison-industrial complex.

1 points   

Question 8

1. According to the functionalist perspective, the unequal distribution of rewards is necessary in order to

a. make the system as democratic as possible.
b. ensure that the most functionally important occupations are filled by the best-qualified people.
c. justify denying some people the opportunity to achieve functionally important occupations.
d. make the least functionally important occupations attractive to the masses.

1 points   

Question 9

1. Ridicule, imprisonment, and withdrawal of affection are examples of _______ sanctions.

a. formal
b. positive
c. negative
d. informal

1 points   

Question 10

1. Sociologists use the term social prestige to mean

a. the reputation that someone has earned.
b. the amount of wealth associated with a status.
c. the social value assigned to a status.
d. the level of respect or admiration for a status apart from any person who happens to occupy it.

1 points   

Question 11

1. Ideally, conformity should be

a. enforced through positive sanctions.
b. voluntary.
c. imposed.
d. enforced through negative sanctions.

1 points   

Question 12

1. When a son or daughter achieves an occupation that is higher or lower in rank and prestige than a parent’s occupation, sociologists label that mobility

a. intragenerational.
b. intergenerational.
c. downward.
d. upward.

1 points   

Question 13

1. Jerome has a car and that makes it easier for him to participate in after-school activities. Jerome possesses _____ cultural capital.

a. embodied
b. objectified
c. significant
d. institutionalized

1 points   

Question 14

1. “Crimes committed by persons of respectability and high social status in the course of their occupations” are called

a. white-collar crime.
b. corporate crime.
c. deviance.
d. the falsely accused.

1 points   

Question 15

1. Joe values privacy and is not willing to consent to surveillance. To access advantages that come with surveillance such as reward points, Joe gives a nonworking phone number. From a structural strain perspective Joe is engaged in

a. innovation.
b. conformity.
c. ritualism.
d. rebellion.

1 points   

Question 16

1. Telephone tapping, interception of letters and electronic monitoring are examples of

a. deviance.
b. censorship.
c. surveillance.
d. conformity.

1 points   

Question 17

1. Helping a nonsmoker qualifies as __________ cultural capital because smoking is prohibited in most public spaces and some work places give preference to nonsmokers when hiring.

a. institutionalized
b. significant
c. objectified
d. embodied

1 points   

Question 18

1. A student writes, “I used to sell drugs. I was very careful. I watched who I sold to and didn’t take any new customers. I was never caught.” This student can be classified as

a. a secret deviant.
b. a pure deviant.
c. a conformist.
d. falsely accused.

1 points   

Question 19

1. Socialization is a process by which people come to learn and accept the ways of their culture as natural. In this sense socialization is

a. like a witch hunt.
b. an informal sanction.
c. a mechanism of social control.
d. a type of surveillance.

1 points   

Question 20

1. A Chinese man recalls “As a boy, I did not know what a god looked like, but I knew that Mao was the god of our lives. When I was six, I accidentally broke a large porcelain Mao badge. Fear gripped me. In my life until that moment, the breaking of the badge seemed the worst thing I had ever done. Desperate to hide my crime, I took the pieces and threw them down a public toilet. For months I felt guilty.” This guilt is a sign that this boy had

a. broken no rules.
b. internalized the expectations of the larger society.
c. no rights.
d. successfully hidden his crime.

1 points   

Question 21

1. ___________ seek to understand the experience of inequality – how it is communicated and how that inequality is conveyed.

a. Modernization theorists
b. Functionalists
c. Conflict theorists
d. Symbolic interactionists

1 points   

Question 22

1. When there are not enough legitimate opportunities open to satisfy all who seek to achieve valued goals, ___________ exists.

a. structural strain
b. differential association
c. conformity
d. a disciplinary society

1 points   

Question 23

1. The Panopticon is a metaphor for what Foucault calls

a. a culture of spectacle.
b. the disciplinary society.
c. a prison industrial complex.
d. a carceral culture.

1 points   

Question 24

1. A social arrangement that normalizes surveillance, making it expected and routine is known as a

a. prison industrial complex.
b. culture of spectacle.
c. disciplinary society.
d. constructionist society.

1 points   

Question 25

1. The ACLU wrote that, “our every move, our every transaction, our every communication is recorded, compiled and stored away, ready to be used against us.” The ACLU was referring to

a. surveillance.
b. witch hunts.
c. the prison industrial complex.
d. censorship.

1 points   

Question 26

1. The question “What does it mean to live in a society organized around surveillance but where personal privacy is protected by the constitution?” captures the dynamics of

a. conformity
b. obedience to authority
c. structural strain
d. rebellion

1 points   

Question 27

1. While the research on payday loans is limited, existing data suggests that

a. they keep people out of debt.
b. most, if not all borrowers, repay the loan in full when it comes due.
c. interest rates are competitive with those on credit cards.
d. a large fraction of payday loans customers roll over their principal multiple times.

1 points   

Question 28

1. Barbara Ehrenreich studied inequality in everyday life as it is experienced by working in jobs that paid $8.00 or less. Ehrenreich’s approach is one that a ___________ would take.

a. conflict theorist
b. symbolic interactionist
c. modernization theorist
d. functionalist

1 points   

Question 29

1. When people believe someone is watching, they may censor or police themselves or find ways to avoid the “gaze”. Their dynamic applies to

a. labeling theory.
b. disciplinary society.
c. obedience to authority.
d. structural strain.

1 points   

Question 30

1. What does it mean to live in a society where people are told that they can be anything they want if they work hard enough? The questions relates to the concept of

a. obedience to authority.
b. labeling theory.
c. structural strain.
d. social construction of reality.

1 points   

Question 31

1. In 2012 and 2013 Blockbuster Video closed 800 stores, leaving 500 in place of the 9,000 that once existed. Redbox DVD and Netflix offered products that made Blockbuster obsolete. This is an example of

a. creative destruction.
b. embodied cultural capital.
c. social mobility.
d. economic growth.

1 points   

Question 32

1. Poor people purchase goods and services that would otherwise go unused, such as day-old bread, used cars, and second-hand clothes. Such purchases speak to

a. functional uniqueness.
b. status consciousness.
c. the functions of poverty.
d. comparable worth.

1 points   

Question 33

1. In the U.S. surgeons earn a median salary of $365,885, which puts them at the ________ of all income.

a. bottom 20 percent
b. top 20 percent
c. middle 20 percent
d. top 40 percent

1 points   

Question 34

1. _____ are essential to the well-being of a group.

a. Censorship
b. Mores
c. Norms
d. Folkways

1 points   

Question 35

1. People that violate _________ experience reactions that include of frowns or remarks of disapproval.

a. folkways
b. sanctions
c. mores
d. norms

1 points   

Question 36

1. Jeremy wore barrettes to nursery school. One day, a boy repeatedly told Jeremy that “only girls wear barrettes.” The incident shows how __________ work as mechanisms of social control.

a. formal positive sanctions
b. informal positive sanctions
c. informal negative sanctions
d. formal negative sanctions

1 points   

Question 37

1. Comparable worth means

a. male and female dominated occupations should be valued equally.
b. that when men and women work in the same firms in the same occupation, they must not be paid differently.
c. that when occupational categories are agreed to be equivalently valuable within a firm, the compensation must be equivalent across those categories.
d. men and women can be paid differently, even if they are in the same occupation.

1 points   

Question 38

1. Kai Erikson wrote, “The critical variable in the study of deviance, then, is the social audience rather than the individual actor since the social audience decides whether or not a behavior is deviant.” This statement best corresponds with which theory of deviance?

a. differential association
b. constructionist
c. labeling theory
d. structural strain theory

1 points   

Question 39

1. Reseachers Michael L. Radelet and Adam Bedau reviewed more than 800 cases of innocent people being convicted of capital crimes, and they found that 56 had

a. no jury trial.
b. admitted guilt.
c. made false confessions.
d. had received early parole.

1 points   

Question 40

1. Ming finds that she is struggling in reading. She and everyone around her tell her that she needs to “practice, practice, practice” and she will succeed. The backdrop to Ming’s struggles is a matter of

a. context.
b. chance.
c. choice.
d. fate.

1 points   

Question 41

1. The shared life style of a _________ may revolve around leisure activities, diet, friendships, and even amount of time dedicated to sleep.

a. status group
b. secondary group
c. master status
d. political party

1 points   

Question 42

1. Sociologists use the term esteem to mean

a. the social value assigned to a status.
b. the level of respect or admiration for a status apart from any person who happens to occupy it.
c. the reputation that someone has earned.
d. the amount of wealth associated with a status.

1 points   

Question 43

1. Class systems of stratification are characterized as

a. closed.
b. rigid.
c. restricted.
d. fluid.

1 points   

Question 44

1. What sociological concept addresses the question, “what does it mean to know someone is or could be watching you at any time?”

a. disciplinary society.
b. labeling theory.
c. obedience to authority.
d. structural strain.

1 points   

Question 45

1. People who violate ______ are usually punished severely; they are ostracized, institutionalized, and sometimes even executed.

a. mechanisms of social control
b. rituals
c. folkways
d. mores

1 points   

Question 46

1. In analyzing social inequality functionalists ask

a. who benefits from social stratification and at whose expense?
b. how do people of different social statuses interact?
c. why does social inequality exist?
d. why do the disadvantaged lack the work ethic needed to advance?

1 points   

Question 47

1. Prison populations include pure deviants and

a. the falsely accused.
b. secret deviants.
c. ritualists.
d. conformists.

1 points   

Question 48

1. Which one of the following statements best illustrates how sociologists think about an infant’s chances to “succeed” in life?

a. Success is a certainty for babies born in high-income households.
b. Success looks “bleak” for infants born in low-income households.
c. Success looks “bleak” for infants born in single parent households.
d. Infants born into high-income households have fewer constraints to overcome.

1 points   

Question 49

1. A situation in which valued resources and desired outcomes are distributed in such a way that people have unequal amounts and/or access to them is known as

a. the social lottery.
b. social equality.
c. social inequality.
d. life chances.

1 points   

Question 50

1. In a study that involved showing respondents 3 hypothetical distributions of wealth, most people believed the top 20 percent should have __________ percent of all wealth.

a. 36
b. 10
c. 84
d. 20