Gender differences in the risk for delinquency

Running Head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1

Annotated Bibliography 2

Annotated Bibliography

Chalyne Arvie

1. Herrera, V. M., & McCloskey, L. (2011). Gender differences in the risk for delinquency among youth exposed to family. Child Abuse & Neglect, 1037-1051.

This study has been conducted by two authors: Laura McCloskey is a professor at Indiana University. She has a Ph.D. in psychology. Veronica Herrera is an assistant professor at the University of Connecticut, her domain of study is political science. The basic aim behind this study was to learn about the differences between the two genders based on their involvement in adolescent delinquency and its connection with the physical abuse they faced during their childhood. Another major connection built in this study is marital violence between parents observed by children during tear early years yet it leaves a lasting impact on their mind. The research penetrated deep into childhood scenarios which could have a possible impact on the human mind and leads to opt a violent lifestyle. The authors tried to assess all types of violence including the violence which children had to endure themselves or they see their parents or other siblings at the receiving end of abuse. The nature of the abuse was not limited to physical violence, it entailed emotional and economic abuse as well. The outcomes showed that both genders, girls and boys were at equal risk of opting juvenile life if they were subjected to

2. Kitzmann, K. (2013). Child witnesses to domestic violence: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 124-142.

Katherine M.Kitzman is the author of this study. She is associated with the University of Memphis and has done a lot of work in the field of health psychology. In this study, a meta-analysis is conducted of 118 research papers to understand what happens to children when they are exposed to violence between their parents. An assessment is based on the outcomes which state that children who witness the violence of any kid whether emotional, physical or economic between their parents face implications of this exposure in their life for a long time. The two major types discussed here are verbally aggressive relationships and physically aggressive relationships. The study shows that there is the major difference between mindsets of those children who did not face any aggression in their childhood between their parents but there is little or no difference between such children who face physical aggression and those who face verbal aggression. Such children are at higher risk to face complications later in their life. It also built a relationship between childhood aggression exposure and later having an inclination towards aggression, violence, and delinquency.

Widom, C. S. (2010). Understanding Child Maltreatment and Juvenile Delinquency: The Research. SAGE journals, 11-21. The author of the study is Cathy Spats Widom who is a well know psychologist and have done a lot of research in the field of early childhood neglect and abuse. She is also a professor and has received a large number of awards for her research. This study provides evidence that there is a very strong connection between malnutrition of children and their involvement in juvenile delinquency later in life. This relation is static irrespective of geographical area, age of children, or time period. This study further shows the people who were subject to maltreatment and violence in childhood would be on a higher risk to face violence again in their adolescent. Such children also face an increased level of mental health problems. The suicide rate is higher in such people. They have a higher consumption of alcohol, lower employment rate, and their intellectual functioning is also way lower than normal people. This study has covered wide domains of childhood victimization in different areas of the world and this connection has remained intact in all these studies. The major areas covered understudies Midwest, Mecklenburg, Northwest region, Rochester, and New York. This study explored in detail the highly directed relationship between juvenile delinquency and maltreatment in childhood. This maltreatment includes subject to violence: physical, emotional and economic.