Emerging infectious diseases

Emerging infectious diseases

Jose J. Avila

MCB2010

Prof. Madison

January 13, 2021

Defining Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) as a disease that are new or changing and are increasing or have the potential to increase in incidence in the near future then these changing diseases turn in some way uncontrollable for science. Coping with such evolving and changeable existing organisms have turned into an inextricably challenge to Science. According to Microbiology textbook it references some of the factors that have contributed to the development of EIDs are evolutionary changes in existing organisms, the spread of known disease to new geographic region or population by modern transportation, and increased human exposure to new, unusual infectious agent in areas that are undergoing ecological changes such as deforestation and construction; but also AIDs developed as a result as antimicrobial resistance.

Examples of EIDs given in the textbook we have Avian Influenza A (H5N1) or bird flu. This type of flu is most often contracted by contact with sick birds; these viruses occur in birds worldwide. It can also be passed from animal to animal, animal to person and person to person. The outbreak came in 2003 in southeast Asia when it killed millions of poultry and 24 people. However, a different Avian influenza virus(H7N9) sickened 131 people in China, but no death was reported. Reported as of 2008 Avian Influenza had sickened 242 people, and about half of them died. The virus has not yet evolved to be transmitted successfully among humans but still under monitoring due to its power to mutate and spread. Another example is Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a neurodegenerative disease of cattle caused by misfolded proteins known as prions. Symptoms include abnormal behavior, trouble walking, weight loss, and eventual paralysis. The outbreak came across 1986 when microbiologists’ studies suggested that the main source of disease was a cattle feed prepared from sheep infected with their own version of the disease. Cattle are herbivores but adding protein to their feed improves their growth and health. Some steps we can take in order to prevent any outbreak of these diseases described above, first you have to understand how those diseases are transmitted; it means get educated in topics related to it in order to avoid getting sick. Good personal hygiene like wash your hands regularly, before and after every action you take, cover a cough, do not share personal utensils like dishes, glasses, combs, spoon, forks and so on. Practice good food-safety techniques to avoid getting sick like wash produce, rinse meats, do not eat raw food. Adults and children should make sure their vaccinations are up to date. If you are traveling to an area where insect-borne disease is present, take and use an insect repellent containing DEET. In many tropical regions, mosquitoes can carry malaria, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, or other serious infections. Stay clear of wild animals. Many wild animals, including raccoons, skunks, bats, foxes, and coyotes, can spread rabies to humans by biting. Keep your pets away from wild animals, too. Dogs, cats, or any other type of warm-blooded animal can pick up rabies from wild animals and pass rabies along to people. Clear brush and junk away from the foundation of your home as general’s safety measures.

References

– Merz, Beverly. How to prevent infections. A few simple precautions can help you avoid getting sick with an infectious disease. Website Https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/how-to-prevent-infections. [Consulted 01/13/2021]

– Fauci, Anthony. Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases: the perpetual challenge. Website https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16306276/ [Consulted 01/13/2021]

– Nicholas Israel Nii-Trebi, “Emerging and Neglected Infectious Diseases: Insights, Advances, and Challenges”, BioMed Research International, vol. 2017, Article ID 5245021, 15 pages, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5245021. Website https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/5245021/ [Consulted 01/13/2021]