Clinical Trial of Education

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Question: A Randomized, Clinical Trial of Education or Motivational-Interviewing–Based Coaching Compared to…

A Randomized, Clinical Trial of Education
or Motivational-Interviewing–Based Coaching Compared to Usual Care to Improve Cancer Pain Management

Mary Laudon Thomas, RN, MS, AOCN®, Janette E. Elliott, RN-BC, MS, AOCN®, Stephen M. Rao, Ph.D., Kathleen F. Fahey, RN, MS, CNS, Steven M. Paul, Ph.D., and Christine Miaskowski, RN, Ph.D., FAAN

Despite important advances in its management, cancer pain remains a significant clinical problem (Apolone et al., 2009; McGuire, 2004; van den Beuken-van Everdingen et al., 2007). In a meta-analysis, cancer pain was found in 64% of patients with metastatic disease, 59% of patients receiving antineoplastic therapy, and 33% of patients who had received curative cancer treatment (van den Beuken- van Everdingen et al., 2007). Cancer pain also has a negative effect on patients’ functional status (Ferreira et al., 2008; Holen, Lydersen, Klepstad, Loge, & Kassa, 2008; Vallerand, Templin, Sasenau, & Riley-Doucet, 2007) and is associated with psychological distress (Cohen et al., 2003; Vallerand, Hasenau, Templin, & Collins-Bohler, 2005). The effect of cancer pain on an individual’s quality of life (QOL) can be significant and extend beyond disturbances in mood and physical function (Burckhardt & Jones, 2005; Dahl, 2004; Fortner et al., 2003).

Data analysis

Were the descriptive or inferential statistics appropriate to the level of measurement for each variable? Use the above article to answer the question