ARMY LEADERSHIP

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

AUGUST 2012

ARMY LEADERSHIP

ADRP 6-22

This publication is available at Army Knowledge Online (https://armypubs.us.army.mil/doctrine/index.html).

ADRP 6-22, C1

Change No. 1 Headquarters Department of the Army

Washington, DC, 10 September 2012

Army Leadership 1. This change replaces the cover to align with Doctrine 2015 standards.

2. ADRP 6-22, 1 August 2012, is changed as follows:

Remove Old Pages Insert New Pages

cover cover

3. File this transmittal sheet in front of the publication for reference purposes.

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

PIN: 103008-001

ADRP 6-22, C1

10 September 2012 By order of the Secretary of the Army:

RAYMOND T. ODIERNO General, United States Army

Chief of Staff Official:

JOYCE E. MORROW Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army 1224210

DISTRIBUTION: Active Army, Army National Guard, and United States Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number (IDN) 110180, requirements for ADRP 6-22.

*ADRP 6-22 (FM 6-22)

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes FM 6-22 (except Appendix B, Counseling), dated 12 October 2006.

i

Army Doctrine Reference Publication No. 6-22

Headquarters Department of the Army

Washington, DC, 1 August 2012

Army Leadership

Contents Page

PREFACE……………………………………………………………………………………………….. iv INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………. v

PART ONE THE BASIS OF LEADERSHIP Chapter 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF LEADERSHIP ……………………………………………………… 1-1

Leadership Defined ……………………………………………………………………………….. 1-1 Foundations of Army Leadership …………………………………………………………….. 1-2 Civilian-Military Linkage ………………………………………………………………………….. 1-3 Leadership and Command Authority ………………………………………………………… 1-3 Mission Command …………………………………………………………………………………. 1-3 Formal and Informal Leadership ……………………………………………………………… 1-4 Army Leadership Requirements Model …………………………………………………….. 1-4 Attributes………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1-5 Core Leader Competencies…………………………………………………………………….. 1-5

Chapter 2 ROLES AND LEVELS OF LEADERSHIP ………………………………………………… 2-1 Roles and Relationships …………………………………………………………………………. 2-1 Levels of Leadership ……………………………………………………………………………… 2-4 Collective Leadership …………………………………………………………………………….. 2-6

PART TWO THE ARMY LEADER: PERSON OF CHARACTER, PRESENCE AND INTELLECT

Chapter 3 CHARACTER ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-1 Foundations of Army Leader Character ……………………………………………………. 3-1 Army Values …………………………………………………………………………………………. 3-1 Empathy……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-3 The Warrior Ethos and Service Ethos ………………………………………………………. 3-4 Discipline ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3-5 Character Development ………………………………………………………………………….. 3-5 Character and Beliefs …………………………………………………………………………….. 3-6 Character and Ethics ……………………………………………………………………………… 3-6

Contents

ii ADRP 6-22 1 August 2012

Chapter 4 PRESENCE ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4-1 Basics of Army Leader Presence ……………………………………………………………… 4-1 Military and Professional Bearing …………………………………………………………….. 4-1 Fitness ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4-1 Confidence ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 4-2 Resilience ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 4-2

Chapter 5 INTELLECT ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5-1 Basics of an Army Leader’s Intellect …………………………………………………………. 5-1 Mental Agility …………………………………………………………………………………………. 5-1 Sound Judgment ……………………………………………………………………………………. 5-1 Innovation ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 5-2 Interpersonal Tact ………………………………………………………………………………….. 5-2 Expertise ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5-3

PART THREE COMPETENCY-BASED LEADERSHIP FOR DIRECT THROUGH STRATEGIC LEVELS

Chapter 6 LEADS …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6-1 Leads Others …………………………………………………………………………………………. 6-1 Builds Trust …………………………………………………………………………………………… 6-7 Extends Influence Beyond the Chain of Command …………………………………….. 6-8 Leads by Example ………………………………………………………………………………… 6-10 Communicates …………………………………………………………………………………….. 6-12

Chapter 7 DEVELOPS …………………………………………………………………………………………… 7-1 Overview of Develops …………………………………………………………………………….. 7-1 Creates a Positive Environment/Fosters Esprit de Corps…………………………….. 7-1 Prepares Self ………………………………………………………………………………………… 7-6 Develops Others ……………………………………………………………………………………. 7-8 Developing on the Job ………………………………………………………………………….. 7-12 Stewards the Profession ……………………………………………………………………….. 7-15

Chapter 8 ACHIEVES ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 8-1 Gets Results ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8-1 Providing Direction, Guidance, and Priorities …………………………………………….. 8-1 Monitoring Performance ………………………………………………………………………….. 8-3 Competencies Applied for Success ………………………………………………………….. 8-3

Chapter 9 LEADERSHIP IN PRACTICE ………………………………………………………………….. 9-1 Challenges of the Operational Environment ………………………………………………. 9-1 Combat and Operational Stress ……………………………………………………………….. 9-3 Stress in Training and Operations ……………………………………………………………. 9-4 Stress of Change …………………………………………………………………………………… 9-4 Tools for Adaptability………………………………………………………………………………. 9-4

PART FOUR LEADING AT ORGANIZATIONAL AND STRATEGIC LEVELS Chapter 10 ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP ……………………………………………………….. 10-1

Leading ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10-1 Developing ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10-4 Achieving …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10-6

Contents

1 August 2012 ADRP 6-22 iii

Chapter 11 STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ………………………………………………………………….. 11-1 Overview of Strategic Leadership ………………………………………………………….. 11-1 Leading ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11-2 Developing ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11-6 Achieving ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 11-9

GLOSSARY ……………………………………………………………………………… Glossary-1

REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………. References-1

INDEX ……………………………………………………………………………………………. Index-1

Figures Figure 1-1. The Army leadership requirements model ………………………………………………….. 1-5 Figure 2-1. Army leadership levels …………………………………………………………………………….. 2-4 Figure 3-1. The Soldier’s Creed ………………………………………………………………………………… 3-4 Figure 3-2. The Army Civilian Corps Creed ………………………………………………………………… 3-4

Tables Introductory Table-1. Rescinded Army terms …………………………………………………………………. v Introductory Table-2. Modified Army terms ……………………………………………………………………. vi Table 3-1. Summary of the attributes associated with Character …………………………………… 3-5 Table 4-1. Summary of the attributes associated with Presence ……………………………………. 4-2 Table 5-1. Summary of the attributes associated with Intellect ………………………………………. 5-5 Table 6-1. Summary of the competency Leads others …………………………………………………. 6-7 Table 6-2. Summary of the competency Builds trust ……………………………………………………. 6-8 Table 6-3. Summary of the competency Extends influence beyond the chain of

command ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 6-10 Table 6-4. Summary of the competency Leads by example ………………………………………… 6-12 Table 6-5. Summary of the competency Communicates …………………………………………….. 6-14 Table 7-1. Summary of the competency Creates a positive environment ……………………….. 7-5 Table 7-2. Summary of the competency Prepares self …………………………………………………. 7-8 Table 7-3. Counseling—Coaching—Mentoring Comparison ……………………………………….. 7-12 Table 7-4. Summary of the competency Develops others …………………………………………… 7-15 Table 7-5. Summary of the competency Stewards the profession ………………………………… 7-16 Table 8-1. Summary of the competency Gets results …………………………………………………… 8-4

iv ADRP 6-22 1 August 2012

Preface Army doctrine reference publication (ADRP) 6-22 expands on the leadership principles established in Army doctrine publication (ADP) 6-22. ADRP 6-22 describes the Army’s view of leadership, outlines the levels of leadership (direct, organizational, and strategic), and describes the attributes and core leader competencies across all levels.

The principal audience for ADRP 6-22 is all leaders, military and civilian. Trainers and educators throughout the Army will also use this publication.

Commanders, staffs, and subordinates ensure their decisions and actions comply with applicable United States, international, and, in some cases, host-nation laws and regulations. Commanders at all levels ensure their Soldiers operate in accordance with the law of war and the rules of engagement (see Field Manual [FM] 27-10).

ADRP 6-22 uses joint terms where applicable. Selected joint and Army terms and definitions appear in both the glossary and the text. For definitions shown in the text, the term is italicized and the number of the proponent publication follows the definition. The use of the term influence throughout this publication reflects the definition of common English usage “the act or power of producing an effect without apparent exertion of force or direct exercise of command,” as distinct from the usage outlined in FM 3-13. It is contrary to law for DOD to undertake operations intended to influence a domestic audience; nothing in this publication recommends activities in contravention of this law.

ADRP 6-22 applies to the Active Army, Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States, and United States Army Reserve unless otherwise stated.

This publication incorporates copyrighted material.

The proponent of ADRP 6-22 is Headquarters, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command. The preparing agency is the Center for Army Leadership, Combined Arms Center – Leader Development and Education, United States Army Combined Arms Center. Send comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) to Center for Army Leadership ATTN: ATZL-CLR (ADP/ADRP 6-22), 290 Stimson Avenue, Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-1293; by e-mail to usarmy.leavenworth.tradoc.mbx.6-22@mail.mil; or submit an electronic DA Form 2028.

Acknowledgments These copyright owners have granted permission to reproduce material from their works.

Leading Change, by John P. Kotter. Reproduced with permission of Harvard Business School Press. Copyright © 1996.

Making Partnerships Work, by Jonathan Hughes and Jeff Weiss. Reproduced with permission of Vantage Partners, LLC. Copyright © 2001. All rights reserved.

Leadership in Organizations, 8th ed by Gary Yukl. Reproduced with permission of the author. Copyright © 2012.

“Assessing the Construct Validity and Utility of Two New Influence Tactics”, by Gary Yukl, Carolyn Chavez, and Charles F. Seifert. Journal of Organizational Behavior Reproduced with permission of the author. Copyright © 2005.

“Consequences of Influence Tactics Used With Subordinates, Peers, and the Boss,” by Gary Yukl and J. Bruce Tracey. Journal of Applied Psychology. Reproduced with permission of the author. Copyright © 1992.

1 August 2012 ADRP 6-22 v

Introduction ADRP 6-22 establishes and describes the leader attributes and core leader competencies that facilitate focused feedback, education, training, and development across all leadership levels.

An ideal Army leader has strong intellect, physical presence, professional competence, moral character and serves as a role model. An Army leader is able and willing to act decisively, within the intent and purpose of superior leaders and in the best interest of the organization. Army leaders recognize that organizations, built on mutual trust and confidence, successfully accomplish missions.

Everyone in the Army is part of a team and functions in the role of leader and subordinate. Being a good subordinate is part of being a good leader. All Soldiers and Army Civilians must serve as leaders and followers. It is important to understand that leaders do not just lead subordinates—they also lead other leaders. Leaders are not always designated by position, rank, or authority.

ADRP 6-22 describes the attributes and core competencies required of contemporary leaders. ADRP 6-22 addresses the following topics necessary to become a competent, multiskilled, and agile Army leader:

 Understand the Army definitions of leader and leadership.  Use the Army leadership requirements model as a common basis for thinking and learning about

leadership and associated doctrine.  Become knowledgeable about the roles and relationships of leaders, including the role of

subordinate or team member.  Discover what makes a good leader: a person of character with presence and intellect.  Learn how to lead, develop, and achieve through competency-based leadership.  Identify the influences and stresses in our changing environment that affect leadership.  Understand the basics of leading at the direct, organizational, and strategic levels.

ADRP 6-22 contains four parts comprised of 11 chapters that describe the Army’s view on leadership:

Part One defines leadership, describes the foundations of Army leadership, and introduces the Army Leadership Requirements Model in Chapter 1. It addresses the various roles of Army leaders and the levels of leadership in Chapter 2.

Part Two describes the leader attributes of character, presence, and intellect. Chapter 3 on leader character covers the Army Values, empathy and the Warrior Ethos, as well as the role of ethics. Chapter 4 on leader presence discusses military bearing, physical fitness, confidence, and resilience. Chapter 5 on leader intellect describes mental agility, sound judgment, innovation, interpersonal tact, and expertise.

Part Three describes the core leader competencies and their application. Chapter 6 addresses the category of leads: leads others, extends the influence beyond the chain of command, leads by example, and communicates. Chapter 7 describes the category of develops: creating a positive environment, prepares self, and develops others. Chapter 8 describes the category of achieves. Chapter 9 discusses the challenges of the operational environment, stress, and change.

Part Four addresses the roles and responsibilities of organizational leaders in Chapter 10 and strategic leaders in Chapter 11.

Based on current doctrinal changes, certain terms have been rescinded or modified for the purposes of ADRP 6- 22. The glossary contains acronyms and defines terms. See introductory