nvoluntary members have been ordered to attend a group in exchange for some reward. Many times, this is a result of judicial system intervention. Often, these members are not interested in participating and getting to know others. The clinical social worker must understand the potential issues or problems that arise within a group of involuntary members and ways to address these issues. It can be especially difficult to create a sense of empowerment when these members have been mandated to attend.
For this Discussion, pay particular attention to the Schimmel & Jacobs (2011) piece.
By Day 3
Post your description of the strategies for working with involuntary group members presented in the Schimmel & Jacobs (2011) article. Describe ways you agree and/or disagree with their strategies. How might you handle the situations presented in the article differently? Explain ways these strategies promote empowerment.
Toseland, R. W., & Rivas, R. F. (2017). An introduction to group work practice (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Chapter 7, “The Group Begins” (pp. 197–230)
Chapter 8, “Assessment” (pp. 230-263)
When Leaders Are Challenged: Dealing With Involuntary Members in Groups Christine J. Schimmel Ed E. Jacobs West Virginia University Leading groups can be challenging and difficult. Leading groups in which members are involuntary and negative increases the level of difficulty and creates new dynamics in the group leading process. This article proposes specific skills and strategies for dealing with three specific issues related to involuntary members in groups: groups where all members are involuntary; groups where some members are involuntary; and groups with open membership where involuntary members join groups that are already in progress. The emphasis is on leaders using creative and multi-sensory interventions to insure that members are actively engaged in the group process. Keywords: group leading; involuntary; negative members According to both Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) Best Practice Guidelines (2007) and the American Counseling Association’s (ACA) Code of Ethics (2005), ‘‘Group leaders screen prospective group members if appropriate to the type of group being offered,’’ and ‘‘identify group members whose needs and goals are compatible with the goals of the group’’ (p. 4). At times however many counselors find themselves leading very difficult groups that involve involuntary members—members who, as opposed to being simply recommended for a group and can choose whether or not to join a group, are mandated or assigned group membership. These types of groups are difficult primarily because the motivation of the members can be extremely low (Greenberg, 2003). Over the years when Manuscript submitted July 14, 2010; final revision accepted January 8, 2011. Christine J. Schimmel, Ed.D., is an assistant professor, and Ed E. Jacobs, Ph.D., an associate professor in the Department of Counseling, Rehabilitation Counseling, and Counseling Psychology at West Virginia University. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Christine J. Schimmel, Department of Counseling, Rehabilitation Counseling, and Counseling Psychology, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6122, Morgantown, WV 26506. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org THE JOURNAL FOR SPECIALISTS IN GROUP WORK, Vol. 36 No. 2, June 2011, 144–158 DOI: 10.1080/01933922.2011.562345 # 2011 ASGW 144 conducting group training for agencies, school, and correctional facilities, many participants have expressed that leading involuntary groups is their most difficult challenge. Involuntary groups often include mandated clients or clients who are required to attend treatment by a department of corrections or a judicial system and include DUI (driving under the influence) or long-term in-patient groups such as drug and alcohol treatment centers. Involuntary situations also include short-term in-patient groups where members have had psychotic breaks or tried to commit suicide, adolescent residential treatment centers, and school groups where students are in trouble for their behavior, truancy, or academic issues (DeLucia-Waack, Gerrity, Kalodner, & Riva, 2004; Greenberg, 2003). Anger management groups, groups for batterers, and court mandated parenting groups usually are involuntary as well. In each of these groups, many if not all of the members are involuntary and this creates challenges for any group leader. Although Corey (2008) recommends only accepting involuntary group members for a limited amount of time, involuntary groups often permit open membership where members are continuously joining and leaving the group. This creates additional difficult dynamics with which the group leader must contend. It should be noted that leaders of involuntary groups should not always assume that group members are unmotivated or that they cannot benefit from a group counseling experience (Corey, 2008). When group leaders develop creative, active leadership techniques like those outlined in this article, involuntary groups can offer much needed help and support for their members. (Fomme & Corbin, 2004; Morgan & Flora, 2002). Leaders of involuntary groups need to be dynamic, energetic, and engaging (Corey, 2008). They must be patient, flexible, and thick skinned; that is, they need to be prepared for negative reactions, and not take them personally. According to Corey, Corey, and Corey (2008), leaders of involuntary groups must be perceptive enough to face the challenges that these groups present openly and be open to the idea that involuntary does not mean unmotivated. Additionally, leaders need to be prepared to cut off members when they are being negative or when they get off track. Finally, the leader of a group consisting of involuntary members needs to have numerous techniques for drawing out those members because involuntary members are frequently committed to not participating in protest to being required to be in the group (Jacobs, Masson, Harvill, & Schimmel, 2012; Schimmel, Jacobs, & Adams, 2008). Corey (2008) states, ‘‘One effective way to create a therapeutic climate for participants in involuntary groups is for the leader to explain to members some specific ways in which the group process can be of personal value to them’’ (p. 427). Schimmel and Jacobs/INVOLUNTARY MEMBERS IN GROUPS 145 This article covers three kinds of situations where the leader has to deal with involuntary members: first, all members not wanting to be in the group; next, one or more members not wanting to be in the group; and lastly the open membership group where a new, negative member joins a group already in progress (Schimmel, Jacobs, & Adams, 2008). Finally, while reviewing and processing the following exercises and ideas, group leaders should note that according to counselor ethics (ACA, 2005), group members must provide informed consent to treatment and thus must be made aware of their rights and responsibilities as group members (Erford, 2011). Strategies and Skills for Dealing With Completely Involuntary Groups ASGW’s Best Practice Guidelines (2007) require that group leaders appropriately assess both their knowledge and skills as they relate to their ability to lead groups. According to Greenberg (2003), among the skills necessary to lead involuntary groups are the leader’s willingness to be more active and to be prepared to ‘‘exert greater control’’ of the group (p. 39). In groups where the entire group does not want to be there, the leader must recognize that he or she has two purposes: (1) to try to cover the subject, such as anger, drinking and driving, new parenting skills, performing better in school; and (2) to try to get the members to become voluntary; that is, to get the members to invest in the group experience instead of resisting learning from the experience (Corey, 2008; Kottler, 2001). It is important for the leader to keep in mind that she cannot accomplish much if the members have a negative or bad attitude so the primary purpose of the first and second session is to ‘‘hook’’ them. When a leader attempts to ‘‘hook’’ group members, she is actively working to get them interested in what is being said; engaging them, and convincing them that there is some value to the group and what is being shared. If the leader is successful, a group that began with involuntary members, then transforms into one in which members enjoy and look forward to participating. The examples that follow require a willingness to lead and be active. Do the Unexpected One of the best things that a leader can do with an involuntary group is to do something out of the ordinary. For example, in a mandatory group for teenagers who were caught using drugs at school, one leader started with: Leader: I know you don’t want to be here so we’re going to use the first 10 minutes to bitch. (The leader used the term ‘‘bitch’’ 146 THE JOURNAL FOR SPECIALISTS IN GROUP WORK / June 2011 intentionally, believing that this may help with rapport since it was obvious that none of these teenagers were at all interested in being in the group. We do not ordinarily suggest the use of bad language but in this case her use of certain words helped her build some rapport with these involuntary members.) I want you to get all your trash talking done with and put it in this trash can (puts a large trash can in the center of the group). You have 10 minutes and then we’re going to get down to business. All of you can talk at once and say all the negative things you are feeling about having to be here. After 10 minutes, she dramatically put a lid on the trash can, removed the can, and firmly said, Leader: Let’s begin. I’m going to tell you how this group can be valuable. I want you to fill out this short sentence-completion form. Starting with negative energy is generally a mistake. According to Erford (2011), it is usually best to limit the amount of time devoted to complaints. The uniqueness of this technique did much to reduce the negative feelings about being in the group. In this example the leader puts herself in control by using the garbage can and soliciting the negative thoughts which she brought to an immediate end by putting a lid on the garbage can and then turning to the positive ways the group could be helpful. She showed that she was in charge. When the leader knows a negative energy is present, she can dissipate that energy by using a technique like the one described in the example. In doing this, she wants to insure that she introduces the exercise in a way that does not set the tone for the group, but rather as an opening technique where she demonstrates a strong leadership approach. This is a way to dissipate some of the negative energy. This technique works only if the leader is a person who presents a very confident, take-charge leadership style. Inexperienced, less confident leaders may be inviting disaster by using such a technique because they would not be able to reverse the negative flow. An additional unexpected strategy is to do something dramatic such as have someone dressed like a policeman come into the room right before the beginning of the group and fake an arrest or some other dramatic scene. This can be a good technique if the unique strategy is related to the purpose and stimulates members to talk about the desired topic (i.e., avoiding arrest, staying out trouble with the law, avoiding another DUI). Using bold, vivid movie or television scenes is another way to start an involuntary group. If the clip is a good one, members tend to forget Schimmel and Jacobs/INVOLUNTARY MEMBERS IN GROUPS 147 that they have all these negative feelings about being in the group. The key is to find something that is engaging and relevant to the purpose of the group. Use Written Exercises One of the best ways to engage involuntary members is to give them a brief writing task, such as to make a list or to complete some incomplete sentences. Members will usually make a list or finish some sentences if the list or sentences are interesting. When members are asked to read what they wrote, most will pay attention because they are curious to hear what others said, and if other members had similar answers to their answers. Oftentimes, negative members are reluctant to share when asked to simply answer questions out loud; however, they may feel more comfortable reading from what they wrote and will therefore feel more comfortable sharing. Listed below are some potential sentences for use in involuntary groups: 1. In order to stay out of trouble, I need to __________________. 2. One thing I would like to know about others in this group is ______________. 3. Given that I have to be here, one thing I would like to hear about is ______. 4. When I get angry, I ________. 5. When I drink, I ______________. 6. The toughest part of being a parent is _________________. 7. One reason I want to drop out of school is _______________. 8. One thing I worry about the leader of this group doing is __________. 9. One thing I like about myself is ___________________. 10. One thing I don’t like about myself is ____________________. 11. One thing I would like to change is _______________________. It should be noted that these are examples of sentences that could be used in various involuntary groups. Leaders should only use two or three of these in any one session and the sentence stems chosen should be related to either the purpose of the group or the members’ feelings about the group. Using lists also can be effective. For example, having members list five things that they believe make them angry or list three things they like and three things they do not like about school can assist in engaging the involuntary member. With any writing activity, the leader closely monitors the members to see that they are writing or completing the sentences. Additionally, it should be noted that leaders take into account that not all members may be able to read and write. Leaders can avoid the pitfalls of this by doing two things: first, read all of the 148 THE JOURNAL FOR SPECIALISTS IN GROUP WORK / June 2011 sentences out loud so that all members hear what the sentences are and secondly, assure the members that you are not going to collect their written answers. Use Creative Props One of the best ways to engage involuntary members is to use a creative prop (Beaulieu, 2006; Gladding, 2005; Jacobs, 1992; Vernon, 2010). Creative ‘‘prop’’ refers to any multi-sensory tool, typically some easy to find or easy to make visual aide. Highlighted below are some creative props that work well with involuntary members and, when used appropriately, make the group more interesting and engaging, therefore diffusing the negativity and hostility. Fuses. For involuntary groups where anger management is the focus, the leader can introduce to the members the idea of lengthening their ‘‘anger’’ fuse so that it takes more to get angry. To do this, the leader would show the group some string of different lengths and ask the members to think of the string as their anger fuse (most would have a short fuse). The leader would lay on the floor many different lengths of thick string (e.g., 1 2 inch to 12 inches). The leader then asks the members to pick the string that represents the length of their anger fuse and ask the members to comment regarding their anger fuse. The simple act of having members identify how long their fuse is usually gets them talking about the role anger plays in their lives. The leader would then pick a very long fuse and talk about the purpose of the group being to help the members to lengthen their fuse. Using the members’ comments regarding anger, the leader could teach cognitive behavioral techniques for lengthening one’s fuse. The leader would be listening for the ‘‘shoulds’’ that the members have that lead to a short fuse. Usually, most members will relate to having a short fuse and the need to lengthen their fuse. (Beaulieu, 2006; Jacobs, 1992; Jacobs et al., 2012). Beer Bottle For involuntary groups where alcohol use is the primary topic, using a large (2 foot tall plastic bottle) beer bottle gets members’ attention and the leader can show many ways where alcohol is a big problem. Members can relate the size of the bottle to the size of their drinking problem. One way to get members attention regarding their denial that their drinking is a problem is the leader can place the large Schimmel and Jacobs/INVOLUNTARY MEMBERS IN GROUPS 149 bottle in the center of the group along side a small empty beer bottle to show the relevant size of the members’ drinking problems. Members can see the difference and some usually begin to comment. If the members do not comment, the leader can use the difference in size of the two bottles to comment on how many with drinking problems think it is small when their love ones, employers, and friends see it as big. The large beer bottle helps with the discussion of denial which is such an important concept with those who have serious drinking problems. The larger beer bottle can be used in groups to show the damage to relationships that excessive drinking can cause. The leader can get two members to stand and have one member represent the spouse or family member of the other and then place the large bottle between them and then ask them to hug. It quickly becomes obvious that the bottle is in the way and they cannot get close due to the bottle. This visual image generates much discussion about the effects that drinking has on relationships not only from the two members with the bottle between them but from many of the other members. (Jacobs et al., 2012; Jacobs & Smith, 1997). Rubber Band Trust is a common issue in groups where the members don’t want to be there. Using a large rubber band (a rubber band that has the potential to be stretched to over a foot in length) to get at the trust issues can be effective (Beaulieu, 2006; Jacobs, 1992; Jacobs et al., 2012). The leader asks one member to hold the opposite end of a rubber band and then pulls on it to lengthen it. Then the leader says: Leader: In a minute, I am going to let go, but I am not going to hurt you. (The leader then counts to three and gently releases the rubber band by slowly closing the distance between the member and himself) Did I do what I said I was going to do? Member (nodding): Yes, but I thought you were going to pop me with that! Leader: Right. I think all of you thought I was going to pop her with the rubber band. I know other folks have popped you in your lives, but I am not going to pop you. I will do what I say I am going to do. Leaders should be prepared to be popped by the member. If this occurs, the leader ca