1. __________ are people that have broken the rules and are caught, punished, and labeled as outsiders.
|b.||The falsely accused|
1. The U.S. Department of State publishes the Human Rights Report on the People’s Republic of China. The report accuses the Chinese government of human rights violations. Constructionist theorists would call this report
|a.||a claims-making activity.|
|b.||a product of rule-makers.|
|d.||a structural strain.|
1. Xavier is applying for a customer service job. He has a charming personality but the interviewer noticed Xavier has missing teeth. Xavier does not get the job because he lacks __________ cultural capital.
1. The negatively privileged property classes include all but which one of the following?
|a.||those dependent on seasonal employment|
|c.||completely unskilled persons|
|d.||those at the bottom of the class system|
1. From a functionalist perspective, social inequality
|a.||ensures that the best-qualified people will fill the most demanding positions.|
|b.||causes people in the entry-level jobs to work harder.|
|c.||guarantees that incompetent people will not seek the most important jobs.|
|d.||increases the motivation level of all workers.|
1. People whose rule breaking is viewed as understandable, incidental, or insignificant are known as
|a.||the falsely accused.|
1. The human gaze is a form of
|d.||the prison-industrial complex.|
1. According to the functionalist perspective, the unequal distribution of rewards is necessary in order to
|a.||make the system as democratic as possible.|
|b.||ensure that the most functionally important occupations are filled by the best-qualified people.|
|c.||justify denying some people the opportunity to achieve functionally important occupations.|
|d.||make the least functionally important occupations attractive to the masses.|
1. Ridicule, imprisonment, and withdrawal of affection are examples of _______ sanctions.
1. Sociologists use the term social prestige to mean
|a.||the reputation that someone has earned.|
|b.||the amount of wealth associated with a status.|
|c.||the social value assigned to a status.|
|d.||the level of respect or admiration for a status apart from any person who happens to occupy it.|
1. Ideally, conformity should be
|a.||enforced through positive sanctions.|
|d.||enforced through negative sanctions.|
1. When a son or daughter achieves an occupation that is higher or lower in rank and prestige than a parent’s occupation, sociologists label that mobility
1. Jerome has a car and that makes it easier for him to participate in after-school activities. Jerome possesses _____ cultural capital.
1. “Crimes committed by persons of respectability and high social status in the course of their occupations” are called
|d.||the falsely accused.|
1. Joe values privacy and is not willing to consent to surveillance. To access advantages that come with surveillance such as reward points, Joe gives a nonworking phone number. From a structural strain perspective Joe is engaged in
1. Telephone tapping, interception of letters and electronic monitoring are examples of
1. Helping a nonsmoker qualifies as __________ cultural capital because smoking is prohibited in most public spaces and some work places give preference to nonsmokers when hiring.
1. A student writes, “I used to sell drugs. I was very careful. I watched who I sold to and didn’t take any new customers. I was never caught.” This student can be classified as
|a.||a secret deviant.|
|b.||a pure deviant.|
1. Socialization is a process by which people come to learn and accept the ways of their culture as natural. In this sense socialization is
|a.||like a witch hunt.|
|b.||an informal sanction.|
|c.||a mechanism of social control.|
|d.||a type of surveillance.|
1. A Chinese man recalls “As a boy, I did not know what a god looked like, but I knew that Mao was the god of our lives. When I was six, I accidentally broke a large porcelain Mao badge. Fear gripped me. In my life until that moment, the breaking of the badge seemed the worst thing I had ever done. Desperate to hide my crime, I took the pieces and threw them down a public toilet. For months I felt guilty.” This guilt is a sign that this boy had
|a.||broken no rules.|
|b.||internalized the expectations of the larger society.|
|d.||successfully hidden his crime.|
1. ___________ seek to understand the experience of inequality – how it is communicated and how that inequality is conveyed.
1. When there are not enough legitimate opportunities open to satisfy all who seek to achieve valued goals, ___________ exists.
|d.||a disciplinary society|
1. The Panopticon is a metaphor for what Foucault calls
|a.||a culture of spectacle.|
|b.||the disciplinary society.|
|c.||a prison industrial complex.|
|d.||a carceral culture.|
1. A social arrangement that normalizes surveillance, making it expected and routine is known as a
|a.||prison industrial complex.|
|b.||culture of spectacle.|
1. The ACLU wrote that, “our every move, our every transaction, our every communication is recorded, compiled and stored away, ready to be used against us.” The ACLU was referring to
|c.||the prison industrial complex.|
1. The question “What does it mean to live in a society organized around surveillance but where personal privacy is protected by the constitution?” captures the dynamics of
|b.||obedience to authority|
1. While the research on payday loans is limited, existing data suggests that
|a.||they keep people out of debt.|
|b.||most, if not all borrowers, repay the loan in full when it comes due.|
|c.||interest rates are competitive with those on credit cards.|
|d.||a large fraction of payday loans customers roll over their principal multiple times.|
1. Barbara Ehrenreich studied inequality in everyday life as it is experienced by working in jobs that paid $8.00 or less. Ehrenreich’s approach is one that a ___________ would take.
1. When people believe someone is watching, they may censor or police themselves or find ways to avoid the “gaze”. Their dynamic applies to
|c.||obedience to authority.|
1. What does it mean to live in a society where people are told that they can be anything they want if they work hard enough? The questions relates to the concept of
|a.||obedience to authority.|
|d.||social construction of reality.|
1. In 2012 and 2013 Blockbuster Video closed 800 stores, leaving 500 in place of the 9,000 that once existed. Redbox DVD and Netflix offered products that made Blockbuster obsolete. This is an example of
|b.||embodied cultural capital.|
1. Poor people purchase goods and services that would otherwise go unused, such as day-old bread, used cars, and second-hand clothes. Such purchases speak to
|c.||the functions of poverty.|
1. In the U.S. surgeons earn a median salary of $365,885, which puts them at the ________ of all income.
|a.||bottom 20 percent|
|b.||top 20 percent|
|c.||middle 20 percent|
|d.||top 40 percent|
1. _____ are essential to the well-being of a group.
1. People that violate _________ experience reactions that include of frowns or remarks of disapproval.
1. Jeremy wore barrettes to nursery school. One day, a boy repeatedly told Jeremy that “only girls wear barrettes.” The incident shows how __________ work as mechanisms of social control.
|a.||formal positive sanctions|
|b.||informal positive sanctions|
|c.||informal negative sanctions|
|d.||formal negative sanctions|
1. Comparable worth means
|a.||male and female dominated occupations should be valued equally.|
|b.||that when men and women work in the same firms in the same occupation, they must not be paid differently.|
|c.||that when occupational categories are agreed to be equivalently valuable within a firm, the compensation must be equivalent across those categories.|
|d.||men and women can be paid differently, even if they are in the same occupation.|
1. Kai Erikson wrote, “The critical variable in the study of deviance, then, is the social audience rather than the individual actor since the social audience decides whether or not a behavior is deviant.” This statement best corresponds with which theory of deviance?
|d.||structural strain theory|
1. Reseachers Michael L. Radelet and Adam Bedau reviewed more than 800 cases of innocent people being convicted of capital crimes, and they found that 56 had
|a.||no jury trial.|
|c.||made false confessions.|
|d.||had received early parole.|
1. Ming finds that she is struggling in reading. She and everyone around her tell her that she needs to “practice, practice, practice” and she will succeed. The backdrop to Ming’s struggles is a matter of
1. The shared life style of a _________ may revolve around leisure activities, diet, friendships, and even amount of time dedicated to sleep.
1. Sociologists use the term esteem to mean
|a.||the social value assigned to a status.|
|b.||the level of respect or admiration for a status apart from any person who happens to occupy it.|
|c.||the reputation that someone has earned.|
|d.||the amount of wealth associated with a status.|
1. Class systems of stratification are characterized as
1. What sociological concept addresses the question, “what does it mean to know someone is or could be watching you at any time?”
|c.||obedience to authority.|
1. People who violate ______ are usually punished severely; they are ostracized, institutionalized, and sometimes even executed.
|a.||mechanisms of social control|
1. In analyzing social inequality functionalists ask
|a.||who benefits from social stratification and at whose expense?|
|b.||how do people of different social statuses interact?|
|c.||why does social inequality exist?|
|d.||why do the disadvantaged lack the work ethic needed to advance?|
1. Prison populations include pure deviants and
|a.||the falsely accused.|
1. Which one of the following statements best illustrates how sociologists think about an infant’s chances to “succeed” in life?
|a.||Success is a certainty for babies born in high-income households.|
|b.||Success looks “bleak” for infants born in low-income households.|
|c.||Success looks “bleak” for infants born in single parent households.|
|d.||Infants born into high-income households have fewer constraints to overcome.|
1. A situation in which valued resources and desired outcomes are distributed in such a way that people have unequal amounts and/or access to them is known as
|a.||the social lottery.|
1. In a study that involved showing respondents 3 hypothetical distributions of wealth, most people believed the top 20 percent should have __________ percent of all wealth.